|SUNG, JWAKYUNG - Rural Development Administration - Korea|
|LEE, SUYEON - Rural Development Administration - Korea|
|LEE, YEJIN - Rural Development Administration - Korea|
|HA, SANGKEUN - Rural Development Administration - Korea|
|SONG, BEOMHEON - Chungbuk National University|
|KIM, TAEWAN - Hankyong National University|
|WATERS, BRIAN - University Of Nebraska|
Submitted to: Plant Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/30/2015
Publication Date: 10/9/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/62798
Citation: Sung, J., Lee, S., Lee, Y., Ha, S., Song, B., Kim, T., Waters, B.M., Krishnan, H.B. 2015. Metabolomic profiling from leaves and roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown under nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium-deficient condition. Plant Science. 241:55-64. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2015.09.027.
Interpretive Summary: Tomato is one of the most important vegetable crops. Nutritional problems have drastically increased in vegetable crops and a rapid and reliable method for their diagnosis is urgently needed. Despite its importance, little information is available about metabolite changes in response to mineral deficiency. We have examined the biochemical changes in both leaves and roots of tomato to understand whole-plant adaptation to low mineral environments. The levels of a wide range of metabolites (171 for leaf and 227 for root) were significantly changed in leaf and root materials due to mineral deficiency. The results of this study provide new insights how nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium deficiency acts on primary and secondary metabolism. Results from the current study should expedite development of new diagnostic tools for plant nutritional problems faced by American vegetable growers.
Technical Abstract: Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are essential macronutrients that are required in large quantities by growing plants. Deficiency of N, P or K can strongly affect metabolites in plant tissues. However, specific metabolic network responses to nutrient deficiencies are not well-defined. Here, we conducted a detailed broad-scale identification of metabolic responses of tomato leaves and roots to N, P or K deficiencies. Tomato plants were grown hydroponically under optimal (5 mM N, 0.5 mM P, or 5 mM) and deficient (0.5 mM N, 0.05 mM P, or 0.5 mM K) conditions and metabolites were measured by LC-MS and GC-MS. Based on these results, deficiency of any of these three minerals affected energy production and amino acid metabolism. However, there were also distinct processes that were impaired in each of the mineral deficiencies. N deficiency generally led to decreased amino acids and organic acids, and increased soluble sugars. P deficiency resulted in increased amino acids and organic acids in roots, and decreased soluble sugars. K deficiency caused accumulation of soluble sugars and amino acids in roots, and decreased organic acids and amino acids in leaves. Notable metabolic pathway alterations included; 1) increased levels of a-ketoglutarate and raffinose family oligosaccharides in N, P or K-deficient tomato roots, 2) increased degradation products of nucleic acids such as allantoin and ß-alanine under P deficiency, and 3) increased putrescine in K-deficient roots. These findings provide new knowledge of metabolic changes in response to mineral macronutrient deficiencies.