Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/6/2014
Publication Date: 1/24/2015
Citation: Waters, W.R. 2015. Vaccine approaches for bovine tuberculosis: Correlates of protection and relevance to human tuberculosis [abstract]. Keystone Symposium on Immunity to Veterinary Pathogens: Informing Vaccine Development. p. 42.
Technical Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, is a classic model of the One Health Concept. M. bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) was first proven effective in cattle prior to use in humans. Recent experimental trials with cattle have demonstrated that: (1) select attenuated M. bovis mutants provide similar to improved efficacy as BCG, (2) subunit vaccines may boost immunity elicited by BCG in cattle, (3) BCG is particularly protective when administered to neonates, and (4) differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is feasible in cattle using both in vitro (interferon-gamma release assays) and in vivo (skin test) methods. Experimental infection/vaccine efficacy studies with cattle have also demonstrated a correlation of vaccine-elicited central memory T cell (TCM) and IL-17 responses to protective efficacy, robust gamma delta T cell responses to mycobacterial antigens upon infection, and correlation of specific antibody to mycobacterial (antigen) burden and lesion severity. This presentation will focus on recent developments on the characterization of Tcm and gamma delta T cell responses to M. bovis infection/vaccination in cattle. Further comparative immunology studies including partnerships of researchers with both veterinary and medical perspectives should prove mutually beneficial for the development of ante-mortem tests and vaccines for control of TB in man and animals.