|BAYSAL-GUREL, FULYA - The Ohio State University|
|MILLER, SALLY - The Ohio State University|
Submitted to: Virology Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/30/2014
Publication Date: 1/27/2015
Publication URL: http://doi:10.1186.S12985-014-0237-5
Citation: Li, R., Baysal-Gurel, F., Abdo, Z., Miller, S., Ling, K. 2015. Evaluation of disinfectants to prevent mechanical transmission of viruses and a viroid in greenhouse tomato production. Virology Journal. 12:5.
Interpretive Summary: Greenhouse production of vegetables has grown steadily in the recent past in North America and Europe. Currently nearly 40% of fresh tomatoes sold in supermarkets in the U.S. originated in greenhouses. The intensive cultural practices required to efficiently produce greenhouse tomato crops often result in serious disease outbreaks caused by several mechanically transmitted viruses and viroids. Disinfecting cutting tools is an effective means to prevent transmission of pathogens to healthy plants. In the present study, 16 disinfectants were evaluated for their ability to deactivate infectivity from three viruses and one viroid that are commonly encountered in greenhouse tomato productions worldwide. Two disinfectants (2%Virkon S and 10% Clorox regular bleach) were the most effective to prevent transmission of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). In addition, Lysol all-purpose cleaner and nonfat dry milk (20%) were also effective against TMV and ToMV. However, Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) was more resilient to chemical treatments than the other three pathogens. This may explain why PepMV has become endemic in many greenhouse tomato facilities. Despite this, it is possible that with proper selection of disinfectant(s) and rigorous practices of sanitization and disinfection, a serious disease outbreak in greenhouse tomatoes caused by these and possibly other related viruses and viroids could be prevented. This information will prove quite valuable to producers of greenhouse tomatoes.
Technical Abstract: In an effort to select disinfectant(s) with capability to deactivate infectivity from a broad range of viruses and viroids that are commonly observed in greenhouse tomato production systems, a total of 16 disinfectants were evaluated against Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Three to four replicated bioassays were conducted through mechanical inoculation on tomato seedlings with treated inocula at three separate exposure time points [0-10 sec (immediately after treatment), 30 sec, and 60 sec]. A positive infection on the inoculated plant was determined by symptom observation, supplemented with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PepMV, TMV and ToMV, and real-time RT-PCR for PSTVd. Statistical analyses were performed using logistic regression and the Bayesian methodology. The data analysis indicated that two disinfectants (2%Virkon S and 10% Clorox regular bleach) were the most effective to prevent or significantly reduce transmission of TMV, ToMV, and PSTVd. In addition, Lysol all-purpose cleaner (50%) and nonfat dry milk (20%) were also effective against TMV and ToMV. However, PepMV was more resilient to chemical treatments than the other two viruses and PSTVd. This may explain why PepMV has become endemic despite rigorous sanitization and disinfection practices deployed in many greenhouse tomato productions.