|Monagas, Maria - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)|
|Jang, Saebyeo - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)|
|Molokin, Aleksey - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)|
|Harnly, James - Jim|
|Urban, Joseph - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)|
|Aguilar, Gloria Solano - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)|
Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/30/2014
Publication Date: 10/7/2014
Citation: Sun, J., Monagas, M., Jang, S., Molokin, A., Harnly, J.M., Urban, J.F., Aguilar, G., Chen, P. 2014. High fat diet leads to changes in metabolite patterns in pig plasma, fecal, and urine samples detected by a ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem with high resolution mass spectrometry metabolomic study. Food Chemistry. 15:173:171-178.
Interpretive Summary: To model the metabolite response to diet in humans, pigs were fed a high fat diet for 11 weeks and the metabolite profiles in plasma, urine, and feces were analyzed. A non-targeted ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) was established for metabolomic profiling. Bile acids (BAs), lipid metabolites, fatty acids, amino acids and phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylglycerol(PG), glycerophospholipids(PI) phosphatidylcholines (PCs),tripeptides, and isoflavone conjugates were found to be the final dietary metabolites that differentiated pigs fed a high-fat versus a basal low-fat diet. The results of this study illustrate the capacity of this metabolomic profiling approach to identify new metabolites and to recognize different metabolic patterns associated with diet.
Technical Abstract: Non-targeted metabolite profiling can identify robust biological markers of dietary exposure that can lead to a better understanding of causal interactions between diet and health. In this study, pigs were used as an animal model to develop an efficient procedure to discover metabolites in biological samples as biomarkers of feeding a high fat diet. Extracts of plasma, fecal, and urine samples from pigs fed high fat or basal regular diets for 11 weeks were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Cloud plots from XCMS online were used for class separation of the most discriminatory metabolites. The major metabolites contributing to the discrimination were identified as bile acids (BAs), lipid metabolites, fatty acids, amino acids, and phosphatidic acid (PAs), phosphatidylglycerol (PGs), glycerophospholipids (PI), phosphatidylcholines (PCs), and tripeptides. The Phase II metabolites of soybean isoflavones, also present as an important constituent of the animal diets, also showed great differences in urine samples from high fat and regular fed pigs. These results suggest that UHPLC-HRMS based metabolomic study can be used to identify biomarkers associated with feeding specific diets and possible metabolic disorders related to diet.