Submitted to: Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering (PMSE)
Publication Type: Popular Publication
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/20/2012
Publication Date: 3/26/2012
Citation: Chang, S., Condon, B.D. 2012. Anti-flammable properties of capable phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine derivatives on cotton. Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering (PMSE). 106:54-55.
Interpretive Summary: We designed and prepared a compound that contains triazine with phosphonate groups to impart flame resistance cotton fabrics. The new compound was mixed in aqueous solutions, and cotton fabrics were treated with the formulation. Upon curing on cotton fabrics, the compounds are expected to fixed on cotton fabrics after treatment and washing with sodium carbonate (1 molar solution) ranged between 4 and 31%. When the treated cotton fabric samples were tested using the vertical flame test and micro-scale combustion calorimeter, we observed that the ignited fabrics self extinguished and left behind a streak of char. Treated fabrics were neither consumed by flame, nor produced glowing ambers upon self extinguishing. This work is significant because it provides easy access to new and potentially useful flame retardant compounds for providing semi-durable flame resistance to cotton fabrics.
Technical Abstract: Most of new phosphorus-nitrogen containing compounds were prepared by organic reactions of cyanuric chloride and phosphonates. They were characterized by analytical tools such as proton (1H), carbon (13C), and phosphorus (31P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis (EA). Cotton twill fabrics were soaked in 10-20% aqueous sodium hydroxide and then treated with organophosphorus or P, N- containing compounds in various organic solvent mixtures. The compounds were grafted onto the fabric by traditional pad, dry, cure methods to produce semi-durable flame resistance. Structural characterizations of treated fabrics were studied by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), elemental analysis (EA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nitrogen is known to have a synergistic effect when combined with phosphorus, resulting in further improvements in char yield. As flame retardant formulations become more complex accurate thermal analysis becomes increasingly important in evaluating and improving new systems. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) will provide degradation and char content information of all materials by measuring the change in mass as a function of rising temperature. Treated fabrics were tested for flammability by such methods as modified methenamine pill test, vertical flame test (ASTM D6413-99) and 45 degree angle flame test (ASTM D1230). The limiting oxygen index (LOI, ASTM D2863) test also was used to evaluate flame resistance.