|PLUNDRICH, N - North Carolina State University|
|GRACE, M - North Carolina State University|
|GUO, R - University Of North Carolina|
|BURKS, A - University Of North Carolina|
|KULIS, M - University Of North Carolina|
|LILA, M - North Carolina State University|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/23/2014
Publication Date: 4/23/2014
Publication URL: http://DOI: 10.1021/jf405773b
Citation: Plundrich, N.J., White, B.L., Grace, M.H., Guo, R., Burks, A.W., Kulis, M.D., Davis, J.P., Lila, M.A. 2014. Novel strategy to create a hypoallergenic peanut protein-polyphenol edible matrices for oral immunotherapy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Vol. 62 (21) 4950-4962.
Interpretive Summary: Peanut allergic reactions, which are estimated to affect 1% of the American population, are an adverse immune response to certain peanut proteins. Oral immunotherapy using peanut flour is a promising strategy under investigation to desensitize peanut allergic patients; however, it is accompanied by numerous side effects. Fruits and vegetables have a number of health-promoting compounds, known as phytochemicals that have a high affinity for binding proteins, which can alter protein structure and functionality. In this research, we developed potentially hypoallergenic peanut protein matrices/functional foods by complexing phytochemicals from berry fruit juices and plant extracts with high protein peanut flour. The resulting enriched peanut flours were screened for hypoallergenicity by determining their IgE reactivity and basophil degranulation capacity, an indication of IgE cross-linking capacity. In general, complexation of peanut flour with phytochemicals from berry fruit juices or extracts reduced IgE binding capacity. Peanut flours complexed with cranberry juice displayed reduced IgE cross-linking capacity in the basophil degranulation test. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that protein structure was altered when complexed with phytochemicals. These findings suggest that peanut flour enriched with phytochemicals from berry fruit juices or extracts could be hypoallergenic and may potentially be used as an oral immunotherapy ingredient to reduce side effects.
Technical Abstract: Peanut allergy affects approximately 1% of infants and children and 0.6% of adults in the U.S., and is responsible for the majority of fatal allergic reactions. Generally, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binds to epitopes on peanut proteins, triggering the cascades responsible for the allergic response. Polyphenols can have significant binding affinity for these edible proteins, eventually leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes. We hypothesized that by fostering stable interactions of plant-derived polyphenols with peanut proteins, IgE-binding epitopes could be masked, resulting in a peanut ingredient with reduced allergenicity. Berry fruit juices and plant extracts with diverse polyphenolic profiles were complexed with light roast 12% fat peanut flour to create stable powdered edible matrices. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested changes in secondary protein structure in all juice or extract-modified peanut matrices. In particular, peanut matrices complexed with proanthocyanidin-rich berry fruit or plant sources substantially reduced IgE-binding to one or several major peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6). Peanut protein-polyphenol matrices created with cranberry juice (1:1 dilution) triggered significantly less basophil degranulation than the un-modified peanut flour. Our results suggest potential for the use of hypoallergenic polyphenol-treated peanut matrices in clinical oral immunotherapy applications.