Location: Arkansas Children's Nutrition CenterTitle: Nutritional influences on bone health and overview of methods) Author
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/15/2011
Publication Date: 1/15/2013
Citation: Alekel, D.L., Weaver, C.M., Ronis, M.J., Ward, W.E. 2013. Nutritional influences on bone health and overview of methods. In: Watson, R.R., Preedy, V.R., editors. Bioactive Foods as Dietary Interventions for the Aging Population. Elsevier Ltd., Oxford, U.K. p. 357-370. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Osteoporosis is defined as a 'systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture' (World Health Organization Scientific Group, 2003). The WHO has developed an operational definition of osteoporosis based on bone mineral density (BMD) of young adult Caucasian women). Because of insufficient data on the relationship between BMD and fracture risk in men or non-white women, the WHO does not offer a definition of osteoporosis for groups other than Caucasian women. Nonetheless, studies have suggested that the cutoff value used in women for spine or hip BMD can also be used to diagnose osteoporosis in men, particularly since the risk of hip or vertebral fracture for a given BMD is similar in men and women (World Health Organization Scientific Group, 2003). The WHO defines osteoporosis as a BMD < 2.5 standard deviations (SD; also referred to as a t-score) below the mean, and osteopenia (low bone mass) as a BMD between 1 and 2.5 SD below the mean for young women. A t-score of 1 SD below the mean or greater indicates normal BMD. Based on these cutoffs, epidemiologic data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey revealed that the incidence of osteopenia was 37–50% and osteoporosis was 13–18% in American women >50 years of age. For each SD below the mean, the woman's risk of fracture doubles. Peak bone mass is the maximum BMD achieved by early adulthood and is a key determinant of future risk of fracture. Yet, the age at which this occurs differs in various populations and differs with respect to skeletal site.