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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Morris, Minnesota » Soil Management Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #293949

Title: Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

item Eberle, Carrie
item Gesch, Russell - Russ
item Forcella, Frank

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/6/2013
Publication Date: 11/6/2013
Citation: Eberle, C.A., Gesch, R.W., Forcella, F. 2013. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature. [abstract]. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting Abstracts. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meeting. Nov. 3-6, 2013, Tampa, FL. Available:

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrations of calendic acid (C18:3) in the 1980s it began to be investigated as an oilseed crop. Understanding the optimal conditions for growth and management of calendula is necessary to incorporate the crop into agronomic rotations. The germination of calendula was optimized at temperatures from 16.5-16.8 deg C and was reduced both above and below this range. Above 30 deg C calendula germination was 0%. Heat shock temperatures (35-40 deg C) were shown to reduce germination (at 16 deg C) below 50% after exposure of less than 50h. At 45 deg C, 100% seed lethality was induced within 24 hours of high temperature treatment. Based on these data calendula seed should only be sown in the field if environmental temperature conditions are predicted to be below 30 deg C during seed germination.