Location: Cotton Ginning ResearchTitle: Overflow system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones Author
Submitted to: Journal of Cotton Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/21/2013
Publication Date: 12/30/2013
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5399142
Citation: Boykin Jr, J.C., Buser, M.D., Whitelock, D.P., Holt, G.A. 2013. Overflow system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones. Journal of Cotton Science. 17(4):357-367. Interpretive Summary: In 2006, the US Environmental Protection Agency implemented a more stringent air quality standard for very fine dust smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. All cotton gins will eventually be impacted by this standard. The primary issue affecting the cotton industry across the country is that cotton gins may not be regulated fairly, because very little scientifically sound information is available on cotton gin emissions of this very fine dust. In response, seven cotton gins at locations across the cotton belt were sampled by the three USDA-ARS Cotton Ginning Laboratories and Oklahoma State University to determine the amount of very fine dust emitted while processing cotton. Three of the seven gins had overflow systems that were not combined with other major systems. It was found that the overflow systems at the gins sampled emitted on average 0.009 pounds of the fine dust for every 500 pound bale of cotton produced, which was about 10% of the total dust emitted from the system. This information provides previously unavailable estimates for fine dust emissions from cotton gins and, thus, will ensure that cotton gins are appropriately permitted and accounted for in state and federal regulations. Furthermore, this may allowing many gins to avoid installing additional dust control measures with substantially higher capital and operating costs that will impact the ginning cost to the farmer.
Technical Abstract: This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues, because current EPA AP-42 cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors did not exist. The objective of this study is the development of PM2.5 emission factors for cotton gin overflow systems based on the EPA-approved stack sampling methodology, Method 201A. The project plan included sampling seven cotton gins across the Cotton Belt. Three of the seven gins had overflow systems where the exhaust airstreams were not combined with other major systems. Another sampled gin had an overflow system where the exhaust was combined with a trash handling system prior to the cyclone. In terms of capacity, the three gins were typical of the industry, averaging 27.5 bales/h during testing. Some test runs were excluded from the test averages because they failed to meet EPA Method 201A Test criteria. Also, other test runs, included in the analyses, had cotton lint fibers that collected in the = 10 µm and/or = 2.5 µm samples. This larger lint material can impact the reported emissions data, but EPA Method 201A does not suggest methods to account for these anomalies. Average measured overflow system PM2.5 emission factor based on the three tests (nine total test runs) was 0.0040 kg/227-kg bale (0.0088 lb/500-lb bale). The overflow system average emission factors for PM10 and total particulate were 0.018 kg/bale (0.040 lb/bale) and 0.041 kg/bale (0.090 lb/bale), respectively. The overflow system PM2.5 emission rate from test averages ranged from 0.027 to 0.21 kg/h (0.059-0.47 lb/h). System average PM10 and total particulate emission factors were higher than those currently published in EPA AP-42. The ratios of overflow system PM2.5 to total particulate, PM2.5 to PM10, and PM10 to total particulate were 9.7, 21.7, and 44.7%, respectively.