Location: Crop Improvement and Protection ResearchTitle: Insect-transmitted viruses affecting tomato production in western North America
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/10/2012
Publication Date: 10/15/2012
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M. 2012. Insect-transmitted viruses affecting tomato production in western North America. Epidemiology and Management of Whitefly-Transmitted Viruses Workshop. p. 31.
Technical Abstract: Insect-transmitted viruses cause significant losses annually for tomato production in western North America (California and western Mexico). Considerable variability exists among viruses impacting production throughout the region. This is influenced by variable climatic conditions which affect vector populations, as well as cropping pattern, and the prevalence of alternate hosts. The Central Valley of California is affected primarily by thrips, aphid, and leafhopper-transmitted viruses. Historically agriculture in this region where most US processing tomatoes are produced has been impacted by Beet curly top virus and related curtovirus species, transmitted by the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tennellus). These viruses continue to plague processing tomato production in the region. Within the past decade incidence of thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus has greatly increased, and now rivals curtovirus infections as a significant production threat in the region. Coastal tomato production in California is limited, but is primarily affected by the crinivirus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), along with periodic outbreaks of aphid-transmitted viruses and curly top. TICV and aphid-transmitted viruses, also impact greenhouse production in California. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was introduced in 2007 into California’s Imperial Valley, through movement of infected plant material, and in spite of aggressive efforts to eradicate it, the virus established in native plant species. TYLCV is readily transmitted by high populations of Bemisia tabaci biotype B that occur from mid-summer through fall. Interestingly, TYLCV has had little impact on production in California, since tomato is not a significant crop in the Imperial Valley production region, and B. tabaci is rarely found in the Central Valley or in coastal production regions, reducing the potential for vector transmission. Tomato production in Mexico is more significantly affected by whitefly-transmitted viruses than California. TYLCV and other tomato-infecting begomoviruses can be found, as well as the criniviruses, TICV and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV). Recently, several new species of the emerging genus, Torradovirus, have been identified infecting tomato in Mexico. The abundance of whitefly-transmitted viruses in this region, along with numerous other viruses common to tomato production, necessitates intensive virus identification and management efforts.