Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/16/2012
Publication Date: 11/11/2012
Citation: Shappell, N.W., Alvarez, D., Kolpin, D., Forman, W., Gray, J., Meyer, M. 2012. Evaluation of surface waters associated with animal feeding operations for estrogenic chemicals and activity. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry North American 33rd Annual Meeting, November 11-15, 2012, Long Beach, CA. p. 377. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Estrogens and estrogenic activity (EA) were evaluated in surface waters associated with animal feeding operations. Water was sampled at 19 sites in 12 states using discrete (n=41) and POCIS (n=19) sampling methods. Estrogenic chemicals measured in unfiltered water by GC/MS2 included: estrone (E1),17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol (17a- and 17B-E2), estriol (E3), and ethinyl estradiol (EE2). Estrogenic activity was evaluated in SPE extracts of filtered water by E-Screen, and the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES). Water from 7 sites contained estrogens and EA (YES and EScreen). E2 Equivalents (E2Eqs) ranges were 0.006–0.49 ng/L, GC/MS2; 0.06–0.35 ng/L by EScreen, except for a manure spill-event sample (63 ng/L GC/ MS2, 42 ng/L EScreen E2Eq). GC/MS2 detected estrogens in 3 samples that were non-detects (NDs) by YES, two of those also EScreen NDs. Sample toxicity was found in one of the EScreen NDs. EScreen sensitivity (LOQ ~0.017ng/L E2Eq) allowed for detection of EA in water from all sites (0.03–0.22 range; field blank 0.019 ng/L, n=10). Estrone was the most abundant and frequent estrogen detected by GC/ MS2, but the proposed No Effect Concentration (pNOEC) for 17B-E2 in fish of 1 ng/L was not exceeded except in the post-manure spill samples. For eleven POCIS samples, all assays detected presence of estrogens or EA. Three of the 4 highest concentration samples were from streams accessed by grazing cattle; one of these neared the NOEC for 17B-E2 (0.9 ng/L GC/ MS2 E2Eq, 0.6 ng/L EScreen E2Eq). The 4th sample was from a drainage ditch in a region where 80% of the basin received poultry manure applications. EScreen and YES identified 4 POCIS samples as estrogenic although the estrogens were NDs by GC/MS2. YES did not detect 3 positive POCIS samples based on GC/MS2 and EScreen data. These ND samples contained =0.13 ng E2Eqs after a > 40 day deployment. While EE2 was never found, estrone was detected in 13 POCIS samples. Unlike 17B-E2, estrone was always present, and at higher concentrations, whenever any other estrogen was detected in water or POCIS, making it a good marker compound for estrogen contamination. While grazing cattle were associated with water having the highest EA, discrete post-manure application runoff samples may have been higher, if sampled at different times. Study results indicate YES to be a relatively inexpensive, adequately sensitive tool for identification of EA at environmentally-relevant concentrations on SPE-extracted water or POCIS samples.