Submitted to: Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/3/2011
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: This chapter provides a brief summary on how pattern recognition receptor-mediated sterile inflammation is modulated by dietary factors.
Technical Abstract: Inflammation is heightened innate immune response caused by infection or wound. It is a part of essential immune responses for host defense against invading pathogens and wound healing which are the key biological processes necessary for the survival of all multi-cellular organisms. In mammals, it is orchestrated by leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils) designed to eliminate pathogens and to heal tissue injury using multifactorial chemical signals (chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, lipid mediators). Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) mediate both infection induced and sterile inflammation by recognizing pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), respectively. The activity and/or the expression of PRRs can be modulated by dietary components and metabolic intermediates. Dietary saturated fatty acids and imbalance or disturbance in metabolic homeostasis can serve as an agonist signal to PRRs, whereas dietary factors such as n-3 PUFAs and certain anti-inflammatory phytochemicals can act as an extrinsic resolution factor for PRR-derived inflammation. These results suggest that chronic inflammation and consequent risk of chronic disease can be dynamically modulated by what we eat.