Location: Sunflower and Plant Biology ResearchTitle: Development of insect resistant sunflowers: Updates and challenges Author
Submitted to: Sunflower Research Forum
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/5/2011
Publication Date: 2/5/2011
Citation: Chirumamilla, A., Charlet, L.D., Hulke, B.S., Aiken, R.M., Knodel, J. 2011. Development of insect resistant sunflowers: Updates and challenges. Sunflower Research Forum, National Sunflower Association, January 19-21, 2011, Fargo, ND. http://www.sunflowernsa.com/research/searchable-database-of-forum-papers/ Interpretive Summary: There are 4 major insect pests in sunflower for which we have no genetic resistance currently, and the goal of our work is to find genetic, host-plant resistance to these insects. This report is an update of progress in finding host plant resistance to sunflower insects and our work in integrating this resistance into improved lines of sunflower for breeding purposes. Host plant resistance which is included in commercial sunflower hybrids should help us to reduce the amount of insecticide that is required to control these pests in agricultural fields, benefitting the environment and reducing input costs for the producers of sunflowers.
Technical Abstract: Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. is one of the major oil seed crops grown in the USA. with a highest estimated cultivated acreage of 975,000 acres in North Dakota. Besides diseases and weeds, insects are one of the major causes for yield losses. An average of 9-10% yield losses was attributed to insect damage for the year 2010. Sunflower, being native to North America, serves as a very attractive host to many stalk and seed infesting insects. The major seed infesting insects are banded sunflower moth, sunflower moth, and red sunflower seed weevil while the stalk infesting insects are sunflower stem weevil and Dectes stem borer. The search for host plant resistance for sunflower insect pests started in the year 2000 and several accessions and interspecific crosses have been identified with significant resistance to major insects. This study is a continuation of previous study. The objective was to evaluate the resistance to head and stalk insects in several new crosses made from previously identified resistant sunflower lines, and to identify new sources of resistance in sunflower germplasm. In addition, laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the ovipositional preference of Cochylis arthuri Dang to the previously tested sunflower lines for the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham.