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Title: Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire.

item LÉVESQUE, C. ANDRÉ - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada
item BROUWER, HENK - Fungal Biodiversity
item CANO, LILIANA - Sainsbury Laboratory
item HAMILTON, JOHN - Michigan State University
item HOLT, CARSON - University Of Utah
item HUITEMA, EDGAR - Sainsbury Laboratory
item RAFFAELE, SYLVAIN - Sainsbury Laboratory
item ROBIDEAU, GREGG - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada
item WIN, JOE - Sainsbury Laboratory
item ZERILLO, MARCELO - Colorado State University
item BEAKES, GORDON - Newcastle University
item BOORE, JEFFREY - Genome Project Solutions
item BUSAM, DANA - J Craig Venter Institute
item DUMAS, BERNARD - University Of Toulouse
item FERRIERA, STEVE - J Craig Venter Institute
item FUERSTENBERG, SUSAN - Genome Project Solutions
item GACHON, CLAIRE M - Scottish Association For Marine Science
item GAULIN, ELODIE - University Of Toulouse
item GOVERS, FRANCINE - University Of Wageningen
item GRENVILLE-BRIGG, LAURA - University Of Aberdeen
item HORNER, NEIL - University Of Aberdeen
item HOSTETLER, JESSICA - J Craig Venter Institute
item JIANG, RAYS H.Y. - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item JOHNSON, JUSTIN - J Craig Venter Institute
item KRAJAEJUN, THEERAPONG - Mahidol University
item LIN, HAINING - Michigan State University
item MEIJER, HAROLD J.G. - Wageningen University And Research Center
item MOORE, BARRY - University Of Utah
item MORRIS, PAUL - Bowling Green State University
item PHUNTMART, VIPAPORN - Bowling Green State University
item PUIU, DANIELA - J Craig Venter Institute
item SHETTY, JYOTI - J Craig Venter Institute
item STAJICH, JASON - University Of California
item TRIPATHY, SUCHETA - Virginia Bioinformatics Institute
item WAWRA, STEPHAN - University Of Aberdeen
item WEST, PIETER VAN - University Of Aberdeen
item WHITTY, BRETT - Michigan State University
item COUTINHO, PEDRO - Aix-Marseille University
item Martin, Frank
item THINES, MARCO - Sainsbury Laboratory
item THOMAS, PAUL - Sri International
item TYLER, BRETT - Virginia Bioinformatics Institute
item VRIES, RONALD DE - Fungal Biodiversity
item KAMOUN, SOPHIEN - Sainsbury Laboratory
item YANDELL, MARK - University Of Utah
item TISSERAT, NED - Colorado State University
item BUELL, C. ROBIN - Michigan State University

Submitted to: Genome Biology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/13/2010
Publication Date: 7/13/2010
Citation: Lévesque, C., Brouwer, H., Cano, L., Hamilton, J.P., Holt, C., Huitema, E., Raffaele, S., Robideau, G.P., Win, J., Zerillo, M.M., Beakes, G.W., Boore, J.L., Busam, D., Dumas, B., Ferriera, S., Fuerstenberg, S.I., Gachon, C.M., Gaulin, E., Govers, F., Grenville-Brigg, L., Horner, N., Hostetler, J., Jiang, R., Johnson, J., Krajaejun, T., Lin, H., Meijer, H., Moore, B., Morris, P., Phuntmart, V., Puiu, D., Shetty, J., Stajich, J., Tripathy, S., Wawra, S., West, P., Whitty, B.R., Coutinho, P., Martin, F.N., Thines, M., Thomas, P.D., Tyler, B.M., Vries, R., Kamoun, S., Yandell, M., Tisserat, N., Buell, C. 2010. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire.Genome Biology. 11:R73.

Interpretive Summary: This manuscript describes the sequencing of the nuclear genome of two isolates of the plant pathogen Pythium ultimum and its analysis.

Technical Abstract: The P. ultimum DAOM BR144 (=CBS 805.95 = ATCC200006) genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes, and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora spp., including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86 % of the genes, with detectable differential expression of suites of genes under abiotic and xenobiotic stress. Analysis of the predicted proteome revealed a large repertoire of proteins involved in plant pathogen interactions although surprisingly, the P. ultimum genome does not encode any classical RXLR effectors and only a few Crinkler genes, which are abundant in related phytopathogenic oomycetes. A lower number of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were present compared to Phytophthora species, with the notable absence of cutinases, suggesting a significant difference in virulence mechanisms between P. ultimum and more host specific oomycete species. Although we observed a high degree of orthology with Phytophthora genomes, there were novel features of the P. ultimum proteome including an expansion of genes involved in proteolysis and genes unique to Pythium. We identified a small gene family of cadherins, proteins involved in cell adhesion, the first report in a genome outside the metazoans. Access to the P. ultimum genome has revealed not only core pathogenic mechanisms within the oomycetes but also lineage specific genes associated with the alternative virulence and lifestyles found within the Pythiaceae compared to the Peronosporaceae.