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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Breakfast frequency and quality may affect glycemia and appetite in adults and children)

Author
item Pereira, Mark
item Erickson, Elizabeth
item Mckee, Patricia
item Schrankler, Karilyn
item Raatz, Susan
item Lytle, Leslie
item Pellegrini, Anthony

Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/15/2010
Publication Date: 1/1/2011
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58084
Citation: Pereira, M.A., Erickson, E., Mckee, P., Schrankler, K., Raatz, S.K., Lytle, L.A., Pellegrini, A.D. 2011. Breakfast frequency and quality may affect glycemia and appetite in adults and children. Journal of Nutrition. 141:163S-168S.

Interpretive Summary: Increased sex hormone levels are related to increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 intake on breast cancer risk markers, circulating sex hormones and urinary eicosanoids were measured in response to controlled feeding of diets designed to increase plasma concentrations of n-3. A controlled cross-over feeding trial in 17 postmenopausal women was conducted using three diets: high fat (HF; 40% energy from fat), low fat (LF; 20% energy from fat) and low fat plus n-3 (LFn3; 20% of energy from fat plus 3% of energy from n-3) in 8-wk feeding periods. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), plasma sex hormones and urinary eicosanoids were measured in response to each diet. Plasma PLFA n-3 were increased with the LFn3 relative to HF and LF (P < 0.0001). Urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) increased with HF relative to LF and LFn3 (P = 0.02) and urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (TxB-M) increased with HF (P = 0.01). Plasma estradiol (E2) was increased by HF (P = 0.03) and plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was increased by LF (P = 0.03). There was a trend for reduced estrone with LFn3 relative to HF and LF (P = 0.14). These results support a role of low fat diet and n-3 in reduction of breast cancer risk relative to a high fat diet.

Technical Abstract: Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 intake on breast cancer risk markers, circulating sex hormones and urinary eicosanoids were measured in response to controlled feeding of diets designed to increase plasma concentrations of n-3. A controlled cross-over feeding trial in 17 postmenopausal women was conducted using three diets: high fat (HF; 40% energy from fat), low fat (LF; 20% energy from fat) and low fat plus n-3 (LFn3; 20% of energy from fat plus 3% of energy from n-3) in 8-wk feeding periods. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), plasma sex hormones and urinary eicosanoids were measured in response to each diet. Plasma PLFA n-3 were increased with the LFn3 relative to HF and LF (P < 0.0001). Urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) increased with HF relative to LF and LFn3 (P = 0.02) and urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (TxB-M) increased with HF (P = 0.01). Plasma estradiol (E2) was increased by HF (P = 0.03) and plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was increased by LF (P = 0.03). There was a trend for reduced estrone with LFn3 relative to HF and LF (P = 0.14). These results support a role of low fat diet and n-3 in reduction of breast cancer risk relative to a high fat diet.

Last Modified: 8/24/2016
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