Submitted to: National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/15/2010
Publication Date: 3/1/2010
Citation: Jackson, R.E., Snodgrass, G.L., Allen, K.C. 2010. Landscape Movement of Tarnished Plant Bug. National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference. p.1216-1218.
Interpretive Summary: Field corn has been shown to be a good host of tarnished plant bug for feeding, development, and reproduction. Movement of tarnished plant bug adults from field corn to adjacent cotton fields has also been reported. Our work has demonstrated the impact of field corn within the cropping landscape on tarnished plant bug populations infesting cotton fields. Field corn is a large contributor of tarnished plant bug adults which infest cotton during June and July. Management of cotton field edges for control of various pests has been practiced, and these results show that they are likely justified for tarnished plant bugs. However, tarnished plant bugs will move considerable distances (>1 mile) from corn to infest cotton. Thus, management strategies should be investigated to minimize the impact of this migration from field corn to cotton. In addition, these data indicate that more effort should be placed on minimizing tarnished plant bug reproduction in cotton fields in late July and early August.
Technical Abstract: Utilization of field corn as a host by tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, and subsequent movement of tarnished plant bug from field corn to adjacent susceptible cotton fields has been reported. However, movement of tarnished plant bug adults from field corn to distant cotton fields has not been well documented. Tarnished plant bug adults were collected from cotton fields adjacent to and distant (>1 mile) from corn fields from June through August in 2008 and 2009. Wings from the adult tarnished plant bugs were subjected to the stable carbon isotope analysis which indicated the type of plant host (C3 or C4) on which nymphs developed. Plants utilizing the C3 photosynthetic pathway are primarily made up of dicots, whereas C4 plants are primarily monocots. Because field corn is a C4 host and the majority of plant hosts of the tarnished plant bug are C3 hosts, the analysis indicated what proportion of the plant bugs infesting cotton developed as nymphs in field corn. Results from both years indicated that greater than 50% of the tarnished plant bugs infesting cotton fields in June developed as nymphs on a C4 host, most likely field corn. In early to mid-July, field corn in the mid-South begins to mature and dry down. Our results show that the proportion of tarnished plant bug adults infesting cotton fields that originated from field corn begins to decline. In 2008, there was a 2-wk period in mid-July where a higher proportion of the tarnished plant bugs originating from field corn were found in cotton fields adjacent to corn; in 2009, this was seen during 1 wk. By early August, virtually 100% of tarnished plant bug adults infesting cotton developed as nymphs on a C3 host. Because fewer wild C3 hosts are available for feeding and reproduction of tarnished plant bug at this time, it is likely that those tarnished plant bugs adults collected from cotton in August developed as nymphs in cotton. These data provide information that may be useful in developing management strategies for tarnished plant bugs in mid-South cotton fields.