|ANDRES, ALINE - Arkansas Children'S Nutrition Research Center (ACNC)
|DONOVAN, SHARON - University Of Illinois
|KUHLENSCHMIDT, MARK - University Of Illinois
Submitted to: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/15/2009
Publication Date: 8/5/2009
Citation: Andres, A., Donovan, S.M., Kuhlenschmidt, M.S. 2009. Soy isoflavones and virus infections. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 20(8):563-569.
Interpretive Summary: Isoflavones (a component of soybean) have been shown to prevent viral infections in cell culture and animal studies. Genistein, one of the isoflavones, is the most studied in this regard. Isoflavones and genistein prevent viral infections from viruses affecting humans and animals such as adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and rotavirus. The way isoflavones prevent these infections is still being studied. Most likely, they affect activities of the virus and the infected cells. The results so far have shown great promise, but they were done mostly in cell culture. There is a need for more studies using animal or human studies to confirm that isoflavones do prevent viral infections.
Technical Abstract: Isoflavones and their related flavonoid compounds exert antiviral properties in vitro and in vivo against a wide range of viruses. Genistein is, by far, the most studied soy isoflavone in this regard, and it has been shown to inhibit the infectivity of enveloped or nonenveloped viruses, as well as single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or DNA viruses. At concentrations ranging from physiological to supraphysiological (3.7–370 uM), flavonoids, including genistein, have been shown to reduce the infectivity of a variety of viruses affecting humans and animals, including adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and rotavirus. Although the biological properties of the flavonoids are well studied, the mechanisms of action underlying their antiviral properties have not been fully elucidated. Current results suggest a combination of effects on both the virus and the host cell. Isoflavones have been reported to affect virus binding, entry, replication, viral protein translation and formation of certain virus envelope glycoprotein complexes. Isoflavones also affect a variety of host cell signaling processes, including induction of gene transcription factors and secretion of cytokines. The efficacy of isoflavones and related flavonoids in virus infectivity in in vitro bioassays is dependent on the dose, frequency of administration and combination of isoflavones used. Despite promising in vitro results, there is lack of data confirming the in vivo efficacy of soy isoflavones. Thus, investigations using appropriate in vivo virus infectivity models to examine pharmacological and especially physiological doses of flavonoids are warranted.