Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/2/2009
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary: This review chapter is to be included in the Handbook of Environmental Analysis –Standard and Emerging Strategies in Water Sciences. The principles of developing and practices of using immunoassay for the determination of pestiticides and pharmaceutical personal care products (PPCPs) presented in different water bodies is described in this book chapter. Pesticides and PPCPs are emerging contaminants that are finding their way into different types of water which could have significant impact in the ecology, environment, and food quality and safety. Because of this, a comprehensive review was necessary to assist scientists in developing newer and better methods. In addition, this review will assist users and regulators to use the tests properly.
Technical Abstract: Due to the increasing number and quantity of organic pollutants, regulatory authorities require implementation of rapid, reliable, and cost-effective technologies for monitoring of water quality. Immunoassays provide a simple, powerful and inexpensive method for monitoring organic contaminants in bodies of water. However, the acceptance of immunoassays relies on the demonstration of quality and validity comparable to sophisticated instrument techniques. In this chapter, fundamentals and design of immunoassays for organic contaminants are outlined with emphasis on factors affecting assay performance, especially of ELISA tests. Specific examples are given to further understanding of the high selectivity and sensitivity of immunoassays for common organic pollutants (mainly pesticides and personal care chemicals) in water. A distinction is made between immunoassays that are quantitative and others used for qualitative screening. Cross-reactivity, the matrix effect, and data interpretation are illustrated by a number of examples from the literature. Quality assurance and guidelines for validation and use are given. Some newly developed immunosensor methods using surface plasmon resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, or electrochemical transduction are briefly reviewed.