|Liu, Yong Biao|
Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/23/2009
Publication Date: 3/1/2010
Citation: Liu, Y., Bettiga, L.J., Daane, K.M. 2010. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks. Journal of Economic Entomology. 103: 272-276. Interpretive Summary: Vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), is an important pest on grape. It not only causes direct economic injury but also transmit viral leafroll disease. It is difficult to control because it often reside under bark and on the roots. Controlling vine mealybug on rootstocks is critical to prevent its spreading. Current practice of hot water dipping is labor intensive and costly. In this study, we developed effective ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for controlling vine mealybug on grape rootstocks. Two ULO treatments with <1 to 30 ppm oxygen of 3 days at 25°C and of 4 days at 15°C had complete control of all life stages of vine mealybug without any negative impact on rootstock germination or growth. The treatments should have good potential as an economical alternative to hot water dipping for vine mealybug control on grape rootstocks.
Technical Abstract: Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. Two treatments with much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), at the same exposure periods of 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, were tested on six varieties of table grape and wine grape rootstocks together with P. ficus. The rootstocks were then planted in a greenhouse together with untreated controls. For both exposure periods there was complete control of P. ficus with no deleterious effects on vine growth, as compared with the control. Therefore, ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on grape rootstocks. In addition, the advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.