Submitted to: Pest Management Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/19/2009
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
Citation: Zhu, Y., Sun, J., Luo, L.L., Liu, X.F., Lee, K.C., Mallette, E.J., Abel, C.A. 2010. Identification of Two Haplotypes of Cytochrome Oxidase Sub-unit II (COII) Gene of the Formosan Subterranean Termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in South Mississippi. Pest Management Science. 66(6):612-620. Interpretive Summary: The Formosan subterranean termite (FST) is one of the most destructive pests in the world. An investigation of the genetic and molecular diversity of the pest in Mississippi has been overlooked by scientific researchers. This study was the first to explore molecular genetic diversity in Mississippi populations of the Formosan subterranean termite. To determine potential genotypes and origins of the termites in Mississippi, 21 colonies were collected in southern Mississippi. Along with 6 colonies collected from Louisiana and 1 colony from China, a total of 28 colonies were subjected to sequencing and analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene in this study. Two genotypes of the Formosan subterranean termite were identified in Mississippi. The GA genotype was identical to those reported previously in Georgia, Louisiana, Alabama, and other infested states. The second AT genotype was identified for the first time in southeastern United States. Sequence identity of the AT genotype provides evidence of at least two introductions of the Formosan subterranean termite into the United States.
Technical Abstract: The Formosan subterranear termite, Coptotermes formosanus was accidentally introduced to the United States from Asia. The introduction of the pest has brought significant economic damage. During the past decade, Mississippi has become a significantly infested state, partially due to the proximity to costal port cities, such as New Orleans. This study was initiated to investigate the origin and infestation route of C. formosanus in southern Mississippi. Twenty-eight colonies (21 colonies from Mississippi, 6 from Louisiana, 1 from China) were collected. Sequencing and analysis of 112 sequences revealed three haplotypes of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene. Two haplotypes of COII were identified in Mississippi. In addition, specific primers were designed and tested for differentially amplifying characteristic fragments for verifying and surveying different genotypes of C. formosanus in the future. Of the two haplotypes identified in Mississippi, the GA type was identical to those reported previously in Georgia, Louisiana, Alabama, and other infested states. The second haplotype, AT type, was identified for the first time in southeastern United States. Sequence identity of the AT type, which is the type primarily reported in southeastern Asian countries, provided evidence of at least two introductions of C. formosanus into the United States