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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Columbia, Missouri » Plant Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #229331

Title: Genetics and Breeding for Modified Fatty Acid Profile in Soybean Seed Oil

item Bilyeu, Kristin

Submitted to: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/15/2007
Publication Date: 12/1/2007
Citation: Grover, S.J., Lee, J., Bilyeu, K.D. 2007. Genetics and Breeding for Modified Fatty Acid Profile in Soybean Seed Oil. Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. 10(4):201-210.

Interpretive Summary: Soybean seeds contain approximately 20% oil that can be extracted and widely used as a component of human foods. Nutritional information has evolved on the most appropriate profiles of fatty acids in oils and fats used by the food industry to achieve healthful products. Thus, soybean varieties with various oil profiles must be made available to meet the needs of the food industry. This research describes the current state of breeding knowledge and technologies for modified fatty acid soybean oil. The impact of this research is the ability to more rapidly respond to the needs of the food industry by development of new soybean varieties with desired fatty acid profiles.

Technical Abstract: Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil is versatile and used in many products. Modifying the fatty acid profile would make soy oil more functional in food and other products. The ideal oil with the most end uses would have saturates (palmitic + stearic acids) reduced from 15 to < 7%, oleic acid increased from 23 to > 55%, and linolenic acid reduced from 8 to < 3%. Reduced palmitic acid (16:0) is conditioned by three or more recessive alleles at the Fap locus. QTLs for reduced palmitic acid have mapped to linkage groups (LGs) A1, A2, B2, H, J, and L. Genes at the Fad locus control oleic acid content (18:1). Six QTLs (R2 = 4-25%) for increased 18:1 in N00-3350 (50 to 60% 18:1) explained four to 25% of the phenotypic variation. M23, a Japanese mutant line with 40 to 50% 18:1 is controlled by a single recessive gene, ol. A candidate gene for FAD2-1A can be used in marker-assisted breeding for high 18:1 from M23. Low linolenic acid (18:3) is desirable in soy oil to reduce hydrogenation and trans-fat accumulation. Three independent recessive genes affecting omega-3 fatty acid desaturase enzyme activity are responsible for the lower 18:3 content in soybeans. Linolenic acid can be reduced from 8 to about 4, 2 , and 1% from copies of one, two, or three genes, respectively. Using a candidate gene approach, perfect markers for three microsomal omega-3 desaturase genes have been characterized and can readily be used for marker assisted selection in breeding for low 18:3.