Submitted to: Journal of Toxicology Toxins Reviews
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/16/2008
Publication Date: 11/11/2008
Citation: Reddy, K., Reddy, C., Abbas, H.K., Abel, C.A., Muralidharan, K. 2008. Mycotoxigenic Fungi, Mycotoxins, and Management of Rice Grains. Journal of Toxicology Toxins Reviews. 27:287-317. Interpretive Summary: Mycotoxins are products produced by fungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. The major fungi and mycotoxins they produce in rice are reviewed in this manuscript. Rice is an important food staple in most of the world. What is currently known in regards to rice infection by fungi and subsequent mycotoxin contamination is reviewed. This review is also aimed to document the level of knowledge and extent of adoption of mycotoxin management practices of rice and constraints faced by farmers in adoption of this technology through various programs. Finally, recent advances in mycotoxicology have made it possible to use this research for improving safe consumption of food that is free of mycotoxins.
Technical Abstract: Mycotoxin contamination in certain agricultural commodities has been a serious concern for human and animal health. Mycotoxins are substances produced mostly as secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi that grow on seeds, grains and feed in the field, or in storage. The major mycotoxin producing fungi are species of Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. Aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, citrinin, gliotoxin and sterigmatocystin are some of the important mycotoxins. This paper reviews the mycotoxigenic fungi, levels of mycotoxins and their management by using botanicals, microbiologicals and cooking methods in rice. The data from detailed investigations on rice seeds and grains help to provide safe grains for consumption and export, and prioritize future research programs.