|Zhu, Yu Cheng|
|MA, CHONGYONG - Nanjing Agricultural University|
|HUANG, YUE - Nanjing Agricultural University|
|SHEN, JINLIANG - Nanjing Agricultural University|
Submitted to: Pest Management Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/22/2008
Publication Date: 12/1/2008
Citation: Wang, Y., Chen, J., Zhu, Y., Ma, C., Huang, Y., Shen, J. 2008. Susceptibility to neonicotinoid and risk of resistance development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Pest Management Science. 64(12):1278-1284.
Interpretive Summary: Due to the long history of chemical applications, the brown planthopper has evolved resistance to four major classes of insecticides, organochlorines, organophospates, carbamates, and pyrethroids. Distinct biological and behavioral characteristics of the brown planthopper, such as short development time, high fecundity, and high dispersion capacity, have contributed to the resistance development to these conventional insecticides. Early detection of changes in resistance/susceptibility to newly introduced insecticides can prompt adoption of alternative control measures for slow down the resistance development. This study was initiated to determine the current status of susceptibility in the brown planthopper to neonicotinoids, including imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and imidaclothiz, and other commonly used insecticides, such as buprofezin, and fipronil in rice production areas. Results indicated that the insect had potential to develop a very high level of resistance to imidacloprid (1423.9-fold). Long-term and intensive use of the insecticide might be associated with the development of high level resistance in target insect. Resistance monitoring was important for check early shift of the susceptibility to some newly introduced insecticides, and was also essential for development of insecticide resistance management strategies.
Technical Abstract: Outbreaks of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, have been occurring more frequently in recent years in China. Control of this pest depended heavily on chemical insecticides. The objective of this study was to determine susceptibilities of N. lugens to neonicotinoids and other insecticides in major rice production areas in China. Results indicated that substantial variations of the susceptibility to different insecticides existed in N. lugens. Field populations developed variable resistance levels to neonicotinoids, with high resistance level to imidacloprid (RR: 135.3- to 301.3-fold), medium resistance level to imidaclothiz (RR: 35 to 41.2-fold), low resistance level to thiamethoxam (up to 9.9-fold), and no resistance to dinotefuran, nitenpyram and thiacloprid (RR<3-fold). Further examinations indicated that a field population developed medium resistance level to fipronil (up to 10.5-fold), and some field populations have evolved low resistance level to buprofezin. In addition, N. lugens was able to develop 1424-fold resistance to imidacloprid in laboratory after the insect was selected with imidacloprid for 26 generation. Long term use of imidacloprid in a wide range of rice growing areas might be associated with the high level of resistance in N. lugens. Therefore, resistance management strategies must be developed to prevent further increase of resistance.