Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/3/2008
Publication Date: 6/1/2008
Citation: Baker, C.A., Rosskopf, E.N., Irey, M.S., Jones, L., Adkins, S.T. 2008. Bidens mottle virus and Apium virus Y identified in Ammi majus in Florida. Plant Disease. 92:6:975. Interpretive Summary: This is the first report of Bidens mottle virus and Apium virus Y (ApVY) in Ammi majus and the first report of ApVY in North America. It suggests that these viruses may be more widely distributed than previously reported. This report continues a cooperative research effort between ARS and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Divsion of Plant Industry, and provides a timely account of virus infection of A. majus to growers, Extension personnel and state and Federal regulatory and research scientists.
Technical Abstract: Ammi majus (bishop’s weed), a member of the Apiaceae, is grown for cut flowers in south Florida. In March 2005, plants were found showing virus-like symptoms including mosaic, vein clearing and leaf rugosity. Inclusion morphology in epidermal strips from these infected plants indicated the presence of one or more potyviruses. This was confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using commercially-available antiserum for potyvirus identification. Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) was identified by sequencing and confirmed with specific antiserum. However, ClYVV was not identified in all potyvirus-infected samples from 2005, indicating the presence of one or more additional potyviruses. Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV) was subsequently identified by immunodiffuion tests using specific antiserum for BiMoV, cylindrical inclusion morphology in epidermal strips, host range data, and sequencing of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products from degenerate potyvirus primers. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of a partial polyprotein gene sequence were 95% and 98% identical, respectively, to a Florida isolate of BiMoV we recently reported from tropical soda apple. Similar virus-like symptoms were again observed in A. majus in January 2007 and persisted through March. ELISA testing again indicated the presence of a potyvirus. However, neither ClYVV nor BiMoV were identified in the initial 2007 samples. Instead, sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products amplified with degenerate potyvirus primers from samples collected on two dates in January and one each in February and March revealed the presence of Apium virus Y (ApVY). The 3’ terminal portion of the genome was found to be 90-91 % identical to ApVY sequences in GenBank at the nucleotide level. Deduced amino acid sequences of the NIb and CP regions of these RT-PCR products were 96% and 95% identical, respectively, to ApVY sequences in GenBank. A single ApVY-infected sample from February 2007 was determined to be co-infected with BiMoV by RT-PCR. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of a partial polyprotein gene sequence were 95% and 97% identical, respectively, to the 2005 A. majus BiMoV isolate. Although ClYVV and BiMoV have previously been reported in other hosts in Florida, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of BiMoV and ApVY in A. majus anywhere and the first report of ApVY in North America.