Submitted to: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2007
Publication Date: 6/30/2008
Citation: Lloyd, A.M., Kline, D.L., Hogsette, Jr, J.A., Kaufman, P.E., Allan, S.A. 2008. EVALUATION OF TWO COMMERCIAL TRAPS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CULICOIDES (DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 24(2):253-262.
Interpretive Summary: Biting midges are a severe nuisance to humans and animals all over the world. In the United States, biting midges attack cattle and sheep in large numbers causing economic losses because of the transmission of blue tongue disease. In coastal areas, biting midges attack in such great numbers that they are often unbearable to tourists causing them to prematurely end their vacations compromising the economic stability of hotels or resorts. Previous studies have shown that changing the biting midge habitat and spraying insecticides are the most effective long-term control methods. However, reduction of biting midge populations with the application of insecticides to the soil, or physical modification of wetland developmental sites is no longer an option in Florida because of state and federal environmental regulatory issues. New techniques are needed for biting midge populations to be managed efficiently. Therefore, scientists at the USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL, worked with scientists at the University of Florida, Department of Entomology, Gainesville, to develop a trapping program for adult biting midges. Initially, it must be determined what traps can be used to attract and kill adult biting midges. After the review of two adult traps produced by the trap-industry leader (American Biophysics), we concluded that the Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus was more efficient at capturing biting midges. We determined that adult traps are a promising alternative for biting midge population management.
Technical Abstract: Two types of commercial propane-powered traps, Mosquito Magnet Freedom (Freedom), and Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus (Liberty Plus), were evaluated in Cedar Key, FL for the collection of Culicoides. Trap preference and seasonal characteristics for three major species, Culicoides furens, Culicoides barbosai, and Culicoides mississippiensis were recorded from July 7, 2005 to July 24, 2006. Over 35 million Culicoides were captured during our study. When species were evaluated separately, statistical analysis yielded 5 months (February, March, June, September and October) with significant trap effects. The Freedom trap captured more C. furens in June and October; the Liberty Plus trap captured more C. mississippiensis in February, March and April, and C. barbosai in September. The trap type, attractants, and seasonality of biting midges are important in trapping efficiency. The high numbers of Culicoides captured during our study suggest that the number of host-seeking Culicoides could potentially be reduced by continuous trapping during times when they are prevalent. Results of these investigations will be used to guide future control efforts.