Submitted to: Indian Journal of Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/12/2006
Publication Date: 1/23/2007
Citation: Maiti, R.K., Vidyasagar, P., Shahapur, S.C., Seiler, G.J. 2006. Studies on Genotypic Variability and Seed Dormancy in Sunflower Genotypes (Helianthus annuus L.). Indian Journal of Crop Science. 1(1-2):84-87. Interpretive Summary: Seed dormancy can be a great problem in seed production of sunflower where seeds need to be planted shortly after harvest. Great efforts have been made to develop techniques in breaking seed dormancy of sunflower. Studies have indicated that sunflower genotypes show a large variability in dormancy. In the present study, a large variability was observed among sunflower genotypes and hybrids in the degree of dormancy. In general, sunflower hybrids showed greater levels of seed dormancy than the cultivated genotypes. Some genotypes are highly dormant, and some are nearly non-dormant. The non-dormant lines could be use in breeding programs to reduce dormancy in hybrid sunflower. Techniques using various chemicals have been developed that give reasonable results, but are not simple and are very expensive for farmers in developing countries. The use of 15 hour or 20 hour priming period is considered very simple and inexpensive to break seed dormancy and can be handled by most farmers. In addition the priming may improve seedling vigour. It is assumed that the priming could have made some biochemical changes in the seed leading to the breaking of seed dormancy and enhancing seed germination and vigour in sunflower.
Technical Abstract: Seed dormancy is a great drawback and causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower for which great efforts have been made to develop techniques in breaking seed dormancy of sunflower. Studies have indicated that sunflower genotypes showed a large variability in dormancy. Few nearly non-dormant genotypes have been identified which may be incorporated in breeding programme for inducing this non-dormancy trait. Different times of hydro-priming (15 and 20 hours) have been adopted to determine their effects in breaking dormancy. It has been assessed that 15 hours of priming improved germination percentage and higher seedling vigour than that at 20 hours of priming period. This priming period is considered a novel technique to break dormancy and to improve seedling vigour in sunflower. A 15 hour priming period produced a significant increase in germination percentage compared to the control. In another study, the same sunflower hybrid grown/obtained from different sources showed variability in dormancy, where 15 hour priming improved germination significantly in most of the sources except for a few cases. This indicates that climatic conditions prevailing in different regions have great impact on seed dormancy in sunflower. It is assumed that the priming has an influence on some biochemical changes in the seed leading to the breaking of seed dormancy and enhancing seed germination and vigour in sunflower.