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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Low levels of waxy wheat flour in bread and their effects on volume and texture

item Garimella Purna, S. K.
item Miller, R. A.
item Seib, P. A.
item Graybosch, Robert - Bob
item Shi, Y. C.

Submitted to: American Association of Cereal Chemists Meetings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2007
Publication Date: 10/7/2007
Citation: Garimella Purna, S., Miller, R., Seib, P., Graybosch, R.A., Shi, Y. 2007. Low levels of waxy wheat flour in bread and their effects on volume and texture. American Association of Cereal Chemists Meetings.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Volume and texture of bread baked at different baking times with partial replacement of flour with hard waxy wheat flour were investigated. Two hard waxy wheat flours, 2114 and 2489, which varied significantly in quality, were used to partially replace Karl ’92 hard wheat flour. Mixograms showed that sample 2114 had 65% absorption with a higher peak height (59.5%) and short peak time (3.45 min), whereas sample 2489 had 62% absorption with a lower peak height (47.4%) and longer peak time (4.71min). Replacement was made at 5, 10, 20 and 30%. Loaves containing higher levels of waxy wheat flour exhibited excessive shrink after baking and a ‘keyhole’ shape. Extending the baking time by 20% minimized shrinkage and resulted in a higher loaf volume. One hour after baking, the volumes of loaves containing 10% or 20% waxy wheat flour 2489 were 863 cc and 920 cc respectively, which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control (810 cc). C-cell™ analysis was used to measure slice brightness. With an extended bake time, there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in slice brightness between the control and the bread made with 10 and 20% waxy wheat flour. However, with a short bake time slice brightness decreased as the level of replacement increased. This study indicates that pan bread made with partial waxy wheat flour replacement had an increased bread volume when a longer baking time is used to fully set the structure. In addition, bread made with 10-20% waxy wheat flour could potentially have reduced firmness and increased shelf life.

Last Modified: 06/26/2017
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