|Wintermantel, William - Bill|
Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/8/2006
Publication Date: 11/1/2006
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M., Fuentes, S., Chuquillanqui, C., Salazar, L.F. 2006. First report of beet pseudo-yellows virus and strawberry pallidosis associated virus in strawberry in peru. Plant Disease. 90:1457. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-1457C. Interpretive Summary: N/A
Technical Abstract: During a 2006 survey for the presence of criniviruses in Peru, large numbers of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) were observed infesting strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fields near Huaral on the central coast of Peru. Plants exhibited a wide range of symptoms including stunting and reddening of leaves characteristic of pallidosis-related decline, which results from a virus complex that includes Beet pseudo-yellows virus (BPYV) and/or Strawberry pallidosis associated virus (SPaV) together with any of a number of different strawberry-infecting viruses. The virus complex causes older leaves to develop a red color, vein and petiole reddening, roots become stunted and plants fail to develop. Leaf samples with varying symptoms were collected from a total of 25 plants from 2 fields and a screenhouse, each planted with a different cultivar. Total nucleic acid was extracted, spotted onto positively charged nylon membranes and tested by hybridization with probes specific to the CPm gene of BPYV and CP gene of SPaV, and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes of both viruses. Results identified the presence of single and mixed infections containing BPYV, SPaV or both viruses together in symptomatic strawberry and control plants infected with each virus individually. No signal was detected in virus-free strawberry. All probes were generated by RT-PCR amplification using sequence specific primers, cloning of RT-PCR products into pGEM-T Easy (Promega, Madison, WI), confirmation by sequencing, and expression as digoxygenin-labeled transcript probes (Roche, Indianapolis, IN). This is the first report of either virus in Peru. SPaV and BPYV are transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), although BPYV is transmitted much more efficiently and has a broader host range than SPaV. Movement of these viruses is likely a result of both propagation by runners and vector transmission.