Submitted to: Handbook of Nutrition and Food
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/15/2007
Publication Date: 8/24/2007
Citation: Nielsen, F.H. 2007. Trace mineral deficiences. In: Berdanier,C.D., Dwyer,J., Feldman,E.B., editors. Handbook of Nutrition and Food. Second Edition. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press. p.159-176.
Technical Abstract: The impact of trace element deficiencies of human health and well-being is presented in an abridged form. The general biological roles, mechanisms involved in homeostasis, factors affecting the manifestation of deficiency signs, and treatments for deficiencies of trace mineral elements are described. In table form, the biological functions, signs of deficiency, pathological consequences of deficiency, predisposing factors for deficiency, recommended intakes and food sources of the essential trace elements boron, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc, and the ultratrace elements chromium, cobalt, iodine, molybdenum and selenium are presented. Tables for the possibly essential ultratrace elements arsenic, nickel, silicon and vanadium summarize their biological functions in lower forms of life, possible functions in humans, deficiency signs in experimental animals, speculated importance for humans, possible predisposing factors for deficiency, postulated adequate intake for humans, and food sources. One table summarizes the reported deficiency signs for experimental animals, usual daily dietary intakes and food sources for other elements with limited evidence for essentiality, including aluminum, bromine, cadmium, fluorine, germanium, lead, lithium, rubidium and tin. The material presented indicates that it is likely that not all the essential mineral elements for humans have been identified, some mineral elements in addition to fluoride and lithium have therapeutic value against disease, and some mineral elements are of more practical nutritional concern than currently acknowledged.