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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Raleigh, North Carolina » Market Quality and Handling Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #186636


item Greene, Jeffrey
item Bratka, K
item Drake, M
item Sanders, Timothy

Submitted to: Journal of Sensory Studies
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2005
Publication Date: 12/25/2005
Citation: Greene, J.L., Bratka, K.J., Drake, M.A., Sanders, T.H. 2005. Effectiveness of category and line scales to characterize consumer perception of fruity fermented flavor in peanuts. Journal of Sensory Studies. 21:146-154.

Interpretive Summary: Fruity fermented (FF) flavor is a common off-flavor in peanuts resulting from high-temperature curing. Two different sensory methods were used to examine the responses of 208 consumers to a low and high level of fruity fermented flavor. We found that one of the methods, which employed consumers marking their response on a vertical line, provided more sensitive data. The line scale indicated that fruity fermented flavor, even at low intensity, negatively impacted overall liking. Although more research is needed to determine the acceptable level of blending of fruity fermented and non fruity fermented lots, these data suggest that processing only lots of fruity fermented peanuts could result in consumer unacceptable products.

Technical Abstract: Fruity fermented (FF) flavor is a common off-flavor in peanuts resulting from high-temperature curing. The 9-point hedonic scale is the most widely used scale to determine consumer acceptance; however, research has indicated that line scales may provide equal reliability and greater sensitivity. The objectives of this study were to characterize consumer perception of FF flavor in peanuts and to compare the effectiveness of the two scale types. Consumers (n=208) evaluated control (no FF), low intensity (1.0) FF, and high intensity (3.0) FF peanut pastes for the strength/intensity of roasted peanut flavor, sweet taste, fresh peanut flavor, and overall liking using randomly assigned ballots. Sensitivity in defining consumer perception of off-flavor in peanuts was greater with use of line scales than with the hedonic scale. The line scale indicated that FF flavor, even at low intensity, in peanuts negatively impacted overall liking and further identified significantly lower roasted peanut flavor and fresh peanut flavor perception by consumers. The hedonic scale identified only a difference in fresh peanut flavor and was not sensitive enough to show a difference in overall liking.