Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/27/2005
Publication Date: 6/3/2005
Citation: Meso, B., Balkcom, K.S., Wood, C.W., Adams, J.F. 2005. Peanut residue as a nitrogen source for conservation tillage rye and cotton. In: Proceedings of the Southern Conservation Tillage Systems Conference, June 27-29, 2005, Clemson University, Florence, South Carolina. p. 185-191.
Interpretive Summary: As peanut residues decompose on the soil surface, they can affect the following crops’ nitrogen requirements, which will influence nitrogen fertilizer recommendations. Scientists from the National Soil Dynamics Laboratory and the Department of Agronomy and Soils at Auburn University examined how peanut residue can influence N requirements of a rye cover crop and subsequent cotton crop in a conservation system. This 2 yr study, which was conducted at the Wiregrass Research and Extension center in Headland, AL, utilized plots with and without peanut residue. Rye was planted across all plots in the fall and corresponding plots received nitrogen fertilizer (0, 30, 60 and 90 lb/acre). Rye was terminated in the spring, prior to cotton planting, and nitrogen fertilizer was re-applied to all cotton plots with the same rates as in the fall. Fertilizer nitrogen influenced nitrogen uptake and yield of rye and cotton, but peanut residue had no effect on rye biomass and N uptake, seed cotton yields, cotton N uptake, or cotton dry weights. Our results show that peanut residue did not affect nitrogen fertilizer requirements for rye or cotton. However retaining residue on the soil surface is beneficial and peanut growers are encouraged to retain peanut residues in their fields.
Technical Abstract: Previous research highlights benefits of utilizing legumes in rotations with non-leguminous crops. Leguminous summer cash crops can contribute nitrogen (N) to succeeding crops. This study assessed the contribution of N from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residues to a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop and subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsitum L.) crop in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (Fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults). Treatment structure was a split plot in a randomized complete block design, with main plots of peanut residue retained or removed from the soil surface, and subplots as N application rates (0, 30, 60 and 90 lb acre-1). In-season N uptake by rye and cotton differed with N rate. Peanut residue had no effect on rye biomass and N uptake, seed cotton yields, cotton N uptake, or cotton dry weights. Our results indicate that peanut residue does not contribute significant amounts of N to succeeding crops, however, retaining residue on the soil surface provides other benefits to soils in southeastern US.