Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/8/2007
Publication Date: 9/20/2007
Citation: Mcphee, K.E., Muehlbauer, F.J. 2007. Registration of specter winter feed pea. Crop Science.,1(2):118-119.
Interpretive Summary: Winter legumes offer many advantages to farming systems including efficient distribution of field work, increased yield potential and, when established using conservation tillage practices, contribute to agricultural sustainability. Specter winter feed pea was developed with sufficient winter hardiness that it can be sown in the fall, survive harsh winter conditions and resume growth in the spring to produce seed. Specter possess sufficient winter hardiness to survive relatively harsh winter conditions in the Pacific Northwest and some intermountain locations in Wyoming, but has suffered winter killing at locations in Montana. Specter has long vine and semi-leafless morphology and maintains a height index of 0.48 improving harvest ease. On average, Specter produces 40% greater seed yield than traditional spring-sown pea crops, but can be as much as twice. Seed quality of Specter is suitable to the feed markets, but due to small seed size and presence of 'ghost mottling' in the testa it is not expected to be acceptable for edible legume markets. Specter possesses resistance to race 1 of fusarium wilt, but is susceptible to pea enation mosaic virus and powdery mildew. Overall, Specter has an advantage to spring-sown crops and inclusion of fall-sown winter legumes offers many advantages to agricultural production systems.
Technical Abstract: Winter legumes offer a unique opportunity for producers to establish a legume crop in the fall and transfer a significant portion of field preparation to the fall avoiding undesirable field conditions in the spring, and yet maintain the benefits of including a legume in the crop rotation. ‘Specter’ is the first winter hardy feed pea to be released in the US lacking pigmentation in the seed and foliage. Specter was tested as PS9830F009 and originated as an F6 selection from the cross, PI167253/D258-1-3/5/B686-320-0/4/FENN*3/WIS7105 made by F.J. Muehlbauer in 1992. Specter was tested at 13 site-years in eastern Washington, northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota and Wyoming. Specter produced an average yield of 2856 kg/ha in advanced trials where trial means averaged 2505 kg/ha. Yield ranged from a low of 1520 kg/ha at Amsterdam, MT, in 2002 (trial mean = 1341 kg/ha) to 4511 kg/ha at Torrington, WY, in 2003 (trial mean = 3490 kg/ha). Compared to spring sown pea cultivars, the data indicate that Specter will, on average, have a 40% yield advantage. Winter survival was near 100 % in the 2004 crop year which was characterized by particularly harsh conditions in November 2003 and January 2004. Specter has a tall growth habit and possesses semi-leafless leaf morphology. Flowers are white with two flowers borne on each peduncle. Seeds are smooth and round with yellow cotyledons and the testa is characterized by subtle mottling referred to as ‘ghost mottling’. Specter is resistant to race 1 of fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. emend. Synd. and Hans. f. sp. pisi, but is susceptible to pea enation mosaic virus and powdery mildew. The increased seed yield potential of Specter compared to spring pea crops offers the opportunity to improve farm profitability and its adaptation to conservation farming practices promises to enhance agricultural sustainability.