|Nielsen, Forrest - Frosty|
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/1/2005
Publication Date: 7/24/2005
Citation: Greger, J.L., Nielsen, F.H., Klasing, K.C. 2005. Potential adverse effects on humans consuming excess minerals in animal products [abstract]. Journal Dairy Science. 88(Suppl. 1):333. Presented at ADSA-ASAS-CSAS 2005 Joint Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, July 24-28, 2005. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The Committee on Mineral and Toxic Substances in Diet and Water for Animals was asked to identify potential risks to humans from consuming products from animals that ingested excess levels of minerals. This was complex question. These points had to be considered. Did a mineral accumulate in tissues of animals ingesting an excess level of the mineral? In which tissues (i.e. muscle, liver, kidney, bone, eggs, or milk) did the mineral accumulate? Was the accumulation different among species (e.g. poultry, cattle, swine, fish, other seafood)? How much of these tissues were ingested by the average adult and average child (categorized by age and weight) in the US? How much would individuals at the 99th percentile or those with unusual diets consume of these tissues? Using these data we estimated human exposure to minerals to humans consuming products from livestock that had ingested excess minerals. These estimates then were compared to the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) (for boron, calcium, copper, fluoride, iodine, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, vanadium and zinc) suggested for humans by the Food and Nutrition Board and WHO and FDA standards (for cadmium, lead, and mercury). We also had to consider the form or the mineral in the animal tissues when evaluating toxicity. For example, organic forms of arsenic in seafood have not been shown to be toxic and selenomethionine has different effects than selenite. These analyses demonstrated that chronic ingestion of high amounts of “protein rich” foods which were contaminated with excess (>5% by weight of the protein rich food) bone chips due to improper processing or the chronic ingestion of large quantities of organ tissues from animals that ingested excess minerals could result in humans consuming more of certain minerals than is considered safe.