|Young, Francis - Frank|
Submitted to: Weed Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/30/2003
Publication Date: 7/1/2004
Citation: Yenish, J.P., and F.L. Young. 2004. Winter wheat competition against jointed goatgrass (aegilops cylindrica) as influenced by wheat plant height, seeding rate, and seed size. Weed Science. 52:996-1001. Interpretive Summary: In lieu of single component weed science research, scientists have recently begun to conduct multi/interdisciplinary systems research for managing specific weed species. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW), jointed goatgrass is a major deterrent to reduced-till or no-till winter wheat cropping systems. Since the early 1970s, individual chemical, cultural, mechanical, and preventive methods of managing jointed goatgrass have been evaluated. In 1998 and 2000 a field study was conducted to evaluate cultural and non-classical biological control methods to manage jointed goatgrass. Specific treatments included wheat seed size, seeding rate, and variety height. Tall wheat varieties reduced jointed goatgrass biomass, spikelet weight, and price dockage compared to short wheat varieties. Grain yield was increased more by increased seeding rate than by increased seed size. Data from this study showed the importance of integrating several practices to increase farmer's income and to manage an invasive, introduced weed species in wheat production systems.
Technical Abstract: Jointed goatgrass is a troublesome weed in winter wheat with selective control only possible with a herbicide-resistant crop. Even with herbicide-resistant wheat, cultural control is still an important part of jointed goatgrass management. A study was conducted in 1998 and 2000 to determine whether using larger sized seed of a tall wheat variety at an increased seeding rate would reduce the effect of jointed goatgrass on winter wheat. Wheat seed size, seeding rate, and variety height had no effect on jointed goatgrass plant density. Tall (~130 cm) wheat reduced mature jointed goatgrass biomass 46 and 16 % compared with short (~100 cm) wheat in years 1 and 2 of the experiment, respectively. Spikelet biomass was also reduced approximately 70 and 30% in the same respective years. One thousand-spikelet weight of jointed goatgrass was reduced 37 and 7% in years 1 and 2, respectively, when grown in competition with taller compared with shorter wheat. Moreover, dockage was 80 and 30% less in years 1 and 2, respectively, when grown in competition with taller rather than shorter wheat. Mature jointed goatgrass height was similar regardless of the competitive wheat height. However, jointed goatgrass was as much as 18% taller than the short wheat and 15% shorter than the tall wheat. Seeding rate had the most consistent effect on wheat yield. Wheat seed yield was about 10% greater with 60 as compared to 40 seed m-1 of row when competing with jointed goatgrass. Results of this study indicate that growers could use a tall winter wheat variety to improve crop competition against jointed goatgrass. Results also indicate that plant breeders should consider plant height when herbicide-resistant varieties are developed for the integrated management of jointed goatgrass.