|Calamari Jr, Timothy|
Submitted to: National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/30/2004
Publication Date: 1/4/2005
Citation: Sawhney, A.P., Singh, V., Sachinvala, N.D., Pang, S., Calamari Jr, T.A., Li, G. 2005. Mechanical analysis of weaving process towards size-free weaving. National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference. CD-ROM. p. 2706-2611. Interpretive Summary: Since 80% of all cotton produced worldwide is used in woven fabrics, the weaving sector of textile industry is by far the biggest market for cotton and, consequently, for the cotton producers. In the existing, centuries-old art of weaving, sizing or coating of warp yarns (with an adhesive, such as starch) for efficient weaving and desizing (removal of the sizing agents) of the fabric (woven with sized yarns) to achieve satisfactory fabric dyeing and finishing are complex processes that are costly and environmentally sensitive. In order to be competitive and environment-friendly, the textile weaving industry wants to eliminate the underlying process of warp sizing. At the direction of the NPS, ARS, USDA and the NCC of America, research scientists at SRRC in New Orleans, Louisiana, are exploring the feasibility of 'size-free weaving' of cotton yarns on a modern high-speed weaving machine. In a recent study, about 60 yards of a 100% cotton twill fabric were produced, under mill-like conditions, on a modern weaving machine without the traditional warp sizing and, more importantly, without causing a single yarn failure or a loom stoppage. These results obtained from a single weaving trial conducted with particular yarns and their preparation have shown for the first time that size-free weaving is at least 'mechanically feasible' and perhaps commercially possible for certain types of yarns, fabrics and weaving machinery and conditions.
Technical Abstract: To achieve efficient weaving of cotton warp yarns with reduced or no size, exploratory efforts towards comprehensive mechanical analyses of various loom components and mechanisms are presented. Theoretical and experimental studies are suggested which involve: 1) modification of loom components made of composite materials in order to withstand desired dynamic stresses due to fatigue, vibration, and impact; 2) relating the effect of specially coated loom components (mainly the reed) and stress variations on a size-less yarn during high speed weaving-like process; and 3) estimation of abrasion rate of such a yarn subjected to a high speed (weaving-like) travel and attrition through loom components made of modified materials, profiles, and/or coatings. The presented conceptual studies when conducted efficiently and successfully should help in the fundamental understanding of the size-less weaving process and, consequently, in developing improved yarn structures, weaving settings, conditions and design of critical loom components for minimizing warp yarn stresses, abrasion and damage during weaving. Any new knowledge gained would be useful for accomplishing efficient weaving with 'reduced warp sizing,' 'no warp sizing,' and even 'traditional warp sizing.'