|Coyne, Clarice - Clare|
|Grunwald, Niklaus - Nik|
Submitted to: Euphytica
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/24/2006
Publication Date: 1/31/2006
Citation: Infantino, A., Kharrat, M., Riccioni, L., Coyne, C.J., Mcphee, K.E., Grunwald, N.J. 2006. Screening techniques and sources of resistance to root diseases in cool season food legumes. Euphytica 147:201-221. Interpretive Summary: Disease caused by soil-borne pathogens significantly reduce crop production of cool season food legumes, pea, lentil, chickpea and lupin worldwide. Advances in disease resistance breeding have traditionally been based on idenfication of natural resistance through conventional methods in plant germplasm collections held by the international research centers, ICARDA, ICRISAT, and the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System. Selection for quantitatively inherited resistance has been particularly difficult due to significant and often inconsistent and unpredictable environmental influences. Application of modern molecular techniques have helped to more precisely identify resistance genes and place them on the genetic maps of these species. Improved selection for resistance genes has been possible through the use of tightly linked DNA markers. Modern molecular techniques have also allowed more accurate identification of disease symptoms and quantitation of pathogen populations. Increased knowledge of plant resistance mechanisms aided by the increasing amount of genomic information generated from the model legume species coupled with more precise understanding of the pathogens promises to advance resistance breeding and improve production of the cool season food legumes worldwide.
Technical Abstract: Cool season food legumes including pea, lentil, chickpea and lupin are produced worldwide as protein and food crops for both human and animal consumption. In many developing countries these crops are a staple and serve as the primary source of dietary protein. These crops serve valuable roles within cereal-based cropping systems and are challenged by both abiotic and biotic stresses. The most devastating disease of these crops worldwide are those caused by soil-borne fungal pathogens such as Aphanomyces euteiches and Fusarium ssp. Many sources of natural resistance have been identified within international plant germplasm collections and the resistance genes incorporated into improved varieties. Selection for resistance based on single genes has been very successful and resulted in significantly improved production potential. Resistance to disease caused by root rot pathogens is more complex and difficult to identify due to interaction of multiple genes, strong environmental influence and often subjective rating scales. Application of modern molecular DNA technology, such as PCR-based assays, has allowed more precise detection of resistance genes as well as more accurate assessment of disease symptoms and pathogen populations. Selection in breeding programs based on marker assisted strategies promises to improve selection especially for traits controlled by multiple genetic factors. Development of improved screening techniques for evaluations in controlled conditions has aided identification of additional sources of resistance. Genomic information derived from model legume species has allowed more precise identification and placement of resistance genes on the genetic maps of the respective species and will make it possible to directly cloning and isolate specific genes. Coordinated application of modern technologies with genetic selection in plant breeding and pathogen identification promises to improve tolerance of the cool season food legumes to soil-borne pathogens worldwide.