Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2005
Publication Date: 1/1/2006
Citation: Nielsen, F.H. 2006. Other minerals. In: Klasing, K.C., editor. Mineral Tolerance of Animals. 2nd Revised Edition. Washington DC; National Academies Press. p. 428-448.
Technical Abstract: There are numerous mineral elements that are unlikely to be of toxicological concern under natural conditions to domestic animals. However, the maximum tolerable levels of these elements may be of interest because of possible exposure through supplements promoted in response to findings suggesting essentiality (rubidium, tungsten), growth stimulation (rare earths, titanium), or some other beneficial effect (lithium, germanium, strontium); pharmaceutical formulations (antimony, silver); or anthropogenic sources (uranium). Thus, this chapter provides succinct information about the biological, chemical and physical properties; sources and metabolism; metabolic interactions and mechanisms of toxicity; tissue levels; and toxicosis and maximum tolerable levels for these elements. The following ere suggested maximum tolerable levels (per kg diet) for domestic animals: antimony, 70-150 mg; germanium, 10-50 mg; lithium, 25mg; rare earths (scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides cerium, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gadolinium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, neodymium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, thulium, and ytterbium), 100 mg; rubidium, 200-2000 mg; silver, 100 mg for animals and 2 mg for fish; strontium, 2,000 ' 3,000 mg; titanium, non-toxic; tungsten, 20 mg; and uranium, 100-400 mg.