Submitted to: Abstract of Agronomy Meetings
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/15/2004
Publication Date: 10/15/2004
Citation: Cantonwine, E., C. C. Holbrook, A. K. Culbreath, W. C. Johnson, and D. Olson. 2004. Breeding peanut for organic farming - opportunities and obstacles. Agron. Abstr. #5530 Cd Rom. Interpretive Summary: not required
Technical Abstract: Organic producers of peanut in the U.S. are few and mostly limited to regions with low humidity where disease pressures are lowest. Organic production in the southeast, where the majority of peanuts are grown, is challenged by weeds and diseases that can cause significant yield loss without pesticides. Fungicides are used to control fungal pathogens, including Cercospora arachidicola, Cercosporidium personatum, Scierotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani. Soil fumigation is often required to manage the peanut root knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria and the soilborne fungus Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Crop rotation and host resistance can minimize the impact of these pathogens and the need for chemical control. Resistance in peanut typically is partial, causing a decrease in the rate of epidemic progression. Although disease still occurs with rate reducing resistance, it tends to be more stable than complete resistance. The stable nature of disease resistance in peanut, along with the fact that flowers are self-fertilized, will allow organic growers to save seed without losing genetic quality. Breeding efforts and available genetic resistance will be reviewed, as will organically sound production practices, i.e. conservation tillage, biological control and stale seed beds, that may help manage disease and weed concerns.