|Rogers Jr, Hugo|
Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/1/2004
Publication Date: 10/1/2004
Citation: Aneja, V.P., Blunden, J., Claiborn, C.S., Rogers Jr, H.H. 2004. Dynamic chamber system to measure gaseous compounds emissions and atmospheric-biospheric interactions. In: Barnes, J., Rudzinski, K.J., editors. Environmental Simulation Chambers: Application to Atmospheric Chemical Processes. Springer, Netherlands. p. 97-109. Interpretive Summary: The loss of gases from agricultural surfaces is an important environmental parameter. The efficacy of dynamics flow-through chambers for emission measurements has been shown in a number of systems. Nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon compounds have been measured. The chamber system provides direct kinetic data. Emission rates have been validated with two separate models.
Technical Abstract: The dynamic flow-through chamber system has been developed in response to a need to measure emissions of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon compounds for a variety of field applications. The cylindrical chamber system is constructed of chemically inert materials and internally lined with 5mil thick transparent fluorinated ethylene polypropylene (FEP) Teflon to reduce chemical reactions and build up of temperature inside the chamber. The chamber (diameter = 27cm, height = 42 cm, volume = 24.05 L) is designed with an open-ended bottom that can penetrate either soil or liquid to a depth of ~6-8 cm, thus creating a completely enclosed system. Carrier gas (e.g. compressed zero-grade air) is pumped at a constant flow rate (~2 to ~5 lpm), depending on the season. The air inside the chamber is well mixed by a variable-speed, motor-driven Teflon impeller (~40 to ~100 rpm). Many different laboratory and field experiments have been conducted using this dynamic chamber system. Oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2, NOy) emissions have been measured from agricultural soils where nitrogen-rich fertilizers have been applied. Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and reduced organic sulfur compounds emissions have been measured using this same technique across a gas-liquid interface at swine waste treatment anaerobic storage lagoons, and agricultural fields. Similar chamber systems have also been deployed to measure uptake of nitrogen, sulfur, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide gases by crops and vegetation to examine atmospheric-biospheric interactions. Emissions measurements have been validated by a coupled gas-liquid transfer with chemical reaction model as well as a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) WATER 9 model.