Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/31/2004
Publication Date: 7/27/2004
Citation: Eggleston, G., Pollach, G., Triche, R. 2004. Differentiating cane white sugar from beet white sugar using ion chromatography profiles. In: Proceedings of the 2004 Sugar Processing Research Conference, Atlanta: 209-214.
Interpretive Summary: There have been reports on the illegal intermixing of cane white sugar with beet white sugar, with the final product being sold as beet sugar alone. A method is urgently needed that is capable of distinguishing between cane and beet white sugars. An ion chromatography method has been developed to be used as a screening method to detect such adulteration. Detection of 10% cane sugar adulteration in beet sugar is possible using this method.
Technical Abstract: Methods for international sugar trade are provided by the International Commission for Uniform Methods in Sugar Analysis. Recently in Europe, there have been reports of illegal trading in Serbia and Montenegro, whereby the origin of white, refined sugar could not be certified. Other countries in Europe and other parts of the world have also most likely suffered from illegal intermixing of cane white sugar (CWS) with beet white sugar (BWS). A method is, therefore, urgently needed that is (a) capable of distinguishing between CWS and BWS, and (b) can measure the percentage of CWS in a CWS/BWS mixture (final goal). Raffinose and theanderose have been advocated as differential markers. However, raffinose is present in both BWS and CWS (although to a much lesser extent in (CWS). Pure theanderose is currently not commercially available, and small IC-IPAD (ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection) peaks have been found in BWS samples where theanderose eluted in CWS samples. Low raffinose in conjunction with numerous cane marker peaks across IC-IPAD NaOH/NaOAc 45min profiles of 7oBrix blind BWS/CWS samples were successfully used to detect 20% CWS adulteration. Increasing the oBrix levels to 10 allowed detection of 10% CWS adulteration. Chromatography libraries of CWS, BWS and BWS/CWS samples for direct comparisons will aid adulterant detection. Further studies using chemometric techniques are proposed to enhance adulteration detection. At the least, the use of IC-IPAD profiles can be used as a screening method before the further verification and quantification with more sophisticated techniques, such as isotope determinations, NMR and DSC.