Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/5/2004
Publication Date: 7/5/2004
Citation: Evett, S.R. 2004. Water use in irrigation: prospects for increased water use efficiency through cooperation in the middle east. The Binational Agricultural Research and Development (BARD) Fund Workshop Promoting Cooperation in Agricultural R&D in the Middle East Region, Istanbul, Turkey. p. 12.
Technical Abstract: Irrigation accounts for up to 80% of consumptive use of fresh water in the Southwestern United States, and it accounts for similarly large percentages of freshwater consumption in the Middle East. Most feasible water development projects have already been undertaken. As urban populations grow and industrial and municipal water needs increase, a decrease in irrigation consumption is required to meet needs. At the same time, irrigation accounts for large percentages of agricultural production and thus food and fiber production. There is a clear need for greater understanding of crop water use and water use efficiency as affected by irrigation method, climate, variety, soils, water quality and management. Improvements in water management and water use efficiency are key to reducing consumption while maintaining production. Current research efforts in the United States and the Middle East focus on improved understanding of crop water use and its prediction for use in water planning and irrigation scheduling; improved understanding of key indicators of crop water status (canopy temperature, leaf water potential, etc.) and their use in irrigation scheduling and control; and improved technologies for irrigation scheduling and control for improved water use efficiency and harvest quality. Crop canopy temperature has been used as an input to irrigation scheduling algorithms since the inception of the crop water stress index (CWSI) in the early 1980s. In the 1990s, a time-temperature threshold (TTT) algorithm for irrigation scheduling and automatic control was extensively tested on maize and soybean at the Bushland ARS laboratory, proving to be capable of producing excellent yield and providing control of water use efficiency for maize.