Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/5/2004
Publication Date: 6/7/2004
Citation: Saha, S., Jenkins, J.N., McCarty, Jr., J.C., Wu, J., Gutierrez, O.A., Cantrell, R.G., Percy, R.G., Stelly, D.M. 2004. Chromosome substitution lines: important genomic resources in cotton. Biotechnology Symposium Proceedings, Alabama A&M University. CD-ROM.
Technical Abstract: Competition from synthetic fibers and the need to improve fiber quality are two major economic forces driving the current global cotton market. Technological changes in the textile industries demand higher quality fiber. The high value per hectre of cotton, and the recent demands for high quality of fibers, clearly justify the importance of new and innovative approaches toward understanding genetic mechanisms of fiber quality. We developed, evaluated and released a set of stable backcrossed Gossypium barbadense (Pima 3-79) chromosome substitution (CS-B) lines in a G. hirsutum (TM-1) background. These lines are near-isogenic with the exception of the substituted chromosome or chromosome segment from Pima 3-79. We identified the chromosomal association of many important agronomic and fiber traits based on the comparative evaluation of the CS-B lines at three different locations over a two year period. We also demonstrated that some of these CS-B lines in crosses with Upland cotton (TM-1) have great potential for improving agronomic and fiber properties. Superior fiber quality is one of the driving forces of the current global cotton markert. Pima (G. barbadense) cotton has a 30% to 50% price advantage over Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) due to better fiber quality. The utilization of backcrossed chromosome or chromosome arm substitution lines (CSB) of G. barbadense in crossing with Upland cotton will reduce interspecific incompatibility at the whole genome level and will allow targeting of high quality fiber traits from G. barbadense for introgression into Upland cotton. Many of these cytogenetic stocks have existed for more than 30 years as G. hirsutum aneuploids. This research was the first to demonstrate the great potential of the CS-B lines for improving fiber and agronomic traits in Upland cotton. The CS-B lines provided the unique opportunity of dissecting the complex cotton genome based on individual chromosome and chromosome pieces. They provide a unique powerful tool to analyze and understand the complex cotton genome and in the discovery of many new genes important for agronomic and fiber traits. The CS-B lines open new paradigms of cotton breeding such as improving complex quantitative traits based on individual chromosome or chromosome segment.