Submitted to: Journal of Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2003
Publication Date: 3/1/2004
Citation: Gu, L., Kelm, M.A., Hammerstone, J., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S., Prior, R.L. 2004. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption. Journal Of Nutrition. 134(3):613-617.
Interpretive Summary: Proanthocyanidins are large complex compounds found in many foods. These substances have been shown to have potential health benefits. However, little is known about their dietary intake because quantitative information on the proanthocyanidin profiles in foods is lacking. Therefore, proanthocyanidins in common and infant foods sampled from the U.S. were analyzed using appropriate standards. The average daily intake of proanthocyanidins in the U.S. population (>2 yrs) has been estimated to be 57.7 mg/person/day based on our food concentration data and the data from USDA's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. The major sources of proanthocyanidins in the American diet are apples (32.0%), followed by chocolates (17.9%) and grapes (17.8%). The 2-5 year age group (68.2 mg/day) and males in the >60-year-age group (70.8 mg/day) consumed more proanthocyanidins than other groups because they included more fruits, especially apples, in their diets. The intake of proanthocyanidins by adolescents was below the average. The daily intake of proanthocyanidins for infants of 4-6 months and infants of 6-10 months was estimated to be 1.3 mg and 26.9 mg, respectively, based on the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics. This study has supported the concept that proanthocyanidins account for a major fraction of the total flavonoids ingested in the Western diet. This food database of proanthocyanidins can be used in studies which evaluate the dietary intake of nutrients and relate nutritional intake to health outcomes.
Technical Abstract: Proanthocyanidins (PAs) have been shown to have potential health benefits. However, no data exist concerning their dietary intake. Therefore, PAs in common and infant foods from the U.S. were analyzed. On the bases of our data and those from the USDA's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) of 1994'1996, the mean daily intake of PAs in the U.S. population (>2 y old) was estimated to be 57.7 mg/person. Monomers, dimers, trimers, and those above trimers contribute 7.1, 11.2, 7.8, and 73.9% of total PAs, respectively. The major sources of PAs in the American diet are apples (32.0%), followed by chocolate (17.9%) and grapes (17.8%). The 2- to 5-y-old age group (68.2 mg/person) and men >60 y old (70.8 mg/person) consume more PAs daily than other groups because they consume more fruit. The daily intake of PAs for 4- to 6-mo-old and 6- to 10-mo-old infants was estimated to be 1.3 mg and 26.9 mg, respectively, based on the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics. This study supports the concept that PAs account for a major fraction of the total flavonoids ingested in Western diets. KEY WORDS: catechin, proanthocyanidins, tannins, foods, infant foods