Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/21/2003
Publication Date: 2/2/2004
Citation: Hellmich II, R.L., Prasifka, J.R., Anderson, P.L. 2004. Effects of Bt plants on non-target herbivores. In: van Emden, H.F., Gray, A.J., editors. GM Crops-Ecological Dimensions. Wellesbourne, Warwick, UK: Association of Applied Biologists. p. 75-80.
Technical Abstract: A formal risk assessment was conducted to evaluate possible effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn pollen on larvae of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. Results of collaborative studies were published in five papers in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. Research suggests that pollen from Bt corn (excluding 176 corn) will have no acute effects on monarch butterfly larvae in field settings. The Bt corn and monarch butterfly controversy underscores the need for science-based information in sensitive or public-interest areas of science. Although Bt-corn pollen does not pose an acute risk to monarch butterflies, research is ongoing to determine whether there are chronic effects due to Bt pollen or Bt anthers.