Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/26/2003
Publication Date: 2/1/2004
Citation: Smith, D.R., Moore Jr, P.A., Haggard, B.E., Maxwell, C.V., Daniel, T.C., Vandevander, K., Davis, M.E. 2004. Impact of aluminum chloride and dietary phytase on relative ammonia losses from swine manure. Journal of Animal Science. 82:605-611. Interpretive Summary: Ammonia from swine manure is a contributor to odor and health problems in animals an humans. This study was done to determine if diet modification or manure amendments could be used to reduce ammonia losses from swine manure. Pigs were fed commercial diets or diets modified with an enzyme called phytase. Manure was treated with aluminum chloride at four rates up to 0.75% on a volumetric basis. Both treatments reduced ammonia losses as a result of decreased manure pH. Ammonia losses were reduced by as much as 52% using aluminum chloride added to manure and by 26% using phytase in the diet. The effects of aluminum chloride were the greatest the first week after addition to manure, so decreasing the time between treatments could further reduce ammonia losses. A foam layer was formed upon addition of aluminum chloride and lasted for 12 days. When both treatments were used together, total nitrogen in manure increased by 17%. The impact of this study is that it provides information to other scientists, extension personnel and swine producers regarding the use of these best management practices to reduce ammonia losses from manure, thereby reducing odor and health problems while increasing the nitrogen content of this valuable fertilizer resource. The impact of aluminum chloride and dietary phytase on relative ammonia losses from swine manure, thereby reduces odor and health problems while increasing the nitrogen content of this valuable fertilizer source.
Technical Abstract: Ammonia losses from manure contributes to environmental and health problems for both livestock and humans. This study was conducted to determine whether aluminum chloride or dietary phytase could be used in swine operations to reduce ammonia volatilization. Twenty-four pens of nursery pigs were fed normal diets or diets modified with dietary phytase. Manure pits under each pen were treated with aluminum chloride at 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50% or 0.75% on a volumetric basis. Ammonia fluxes and manure pH were measured twice weekly. Both treatments reduced manure pH, thereby reducing ammonia losses. Aluminum chloride reduced ammonia losses by 52%, while phytase was found to reduce ammonia losses by 25%. When both treatments were used together, ammonia losses from swine manure were 59% lower than control manure. Reductions in ammonia losses from aluminum chloride diminished with time, however reductions in ammonia losses due to phytase were more consistent with time. The high aluminum chloride treatment was found to increase manure total nitrogen by 17%, potentially increasing the fertilizer value of this valuable fertilizer resource. Data from this study indicate that these best management practices can reduce ammonia losses from swine manure, potentially improving animal and human health while reducing environmental concerns.