Submitted to: Sustainable Land Application Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/4/2004
Publication Date: 1/4/2004
Citation: Torbert III, H.A., R.D. Harmel, and K.N. Potter. 2004. Evaluation of some P Index Criteria in Cultivated Agriculture with Rainfall Simulation. Sustainable Land Application Conference Lake Buena Vista, FL. January 4-8, 2004.
Technical Abstract: There are growing concerns regarding the fate of nutrient from land application of animal waste. In recent years, P indexes have been developed to provide information regarding nutrient loss potentials from animal wasted application methods and topography. However, in many cases, these P indexes have not been fully tested, especially in cultivated agriculture. Three factors commonly utilized in soil P indexes for manure management are manure rate, manure incorporation, and soil slope. Rainfall simulations were conducted to examine the impact of these three factors on runoff losses of P on heavy clay soils under cultivated agriculture. Four manure application rates (0, 4.5, 9, and 13.5 Mg ha-1) was applied to two different soil slopes (5% and 8%) on a Heiden clay (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Udic Chromusterts). The four application rates were also applied permanent to Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) pasture on a 5% slope. The manure was surface applied to a corn production area, with or without incorporation. A rainfall simulator was used to generate water runoff for 30 minutes from a 1.5 X 2.0 m plot. Runoff samples were analyzed for runoff volume, sediment, sediment N and P, soluble NH4, NO3 and PO4. The results were analyzed using regression analysis techniques. Increased losses of NH4 and PO4 were observed with increasing manure application rate, with a significant reduction in losses observed when manure was incorporated. However, increased soil slope did not significantly impact the level of runoff losses of NH4 and PO4.