Submitted to: American Chemical Society Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/15/2003
Publication Date: 3/24/2003
Citation: Blanchard, E.J., Graves, E.E. 2003. Reaction Products of Unsaturated Polycarboxylic Acids and Sodium Hypophosphite for Improved Flame Resistance of Cotton-Containing Materials [abstract]. American Chemical Society Abstracts. 225(1-2):CELL 134.
Technical Abstract: Reaction products of unsaturated polycarboxylic acids and sodium hypophosite were found to improve flame resistance of cellulosic materials as determined by the 45 degree flammability test for apparel textiles. The most effective product was that from the reaction of maleic acid with sodium hypophosphite to form sodium phosphinicosuccinic acid (1:1 mole ratio). Fabric treated with sodium phosphonicobissuccininc acid did not perform as well. Phosphorus analysis of the cellulosic substrates indicated that materials treated with the 1:1 mole ratio of reactants had higher phosphorus contents. Flammability of the materials containing adequate amounts of phosphorus exhibited very good char forming properties upon burning without glowing combustion. The phosphorus-containing polycarboxylic acids were used to chemically modify both 100% cotton printcloth and 80/20 cotton-polyester fleece fabric. Esterification of cellulose was achieved by reaction of the of the acid with cotton in the presence of a suitable catalyst. In addition to inclusion of phosphorus in the esterification agent, the double bound of maleic acid is eliminated upon reaction with sodium hypophosphite. This allows adjustment of the formulation to a finishing pH of 3-4.5. The mixed chemical system for fabric treatment with maleic acid and sodium hypophosphite does not allow adjustment of the formulation to a pH of greater than 2. Esterification of cotton at such low pH levels can have a negative impact during curing of dyed goods at elevated temperatures. Various factors, including concentration levels of chemical agents, reaction conditions, and thermogravimetric analyses of the substrates are presented.