Submitted to: Southwestern Entomologist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/18/2000
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Research on control of the tarnished plant bug (TPB), in cotton with insecticides began during the 1930's. Researchers attending the cotton conference in 1953 for the first time were in agreement that the TPB was a serious pest. Control of TPB in cotton was obtained for many years with organochlorine, carbamate, and organophosphate insecticides without documented resistance. Pyrethroids were registered for use in cotton in 1978. After fifteen years of wide spread use, TPB with high levels of pyrethroid resistance were found in 1993 in cotton in the Mississippi Delta. Resistant insects were found to have multiple resistance to other classes of insecticides. Producers at the present time are totally dependent on insecticides for TPB control in cotton. The level of control with the various classes of insecticides has decreased dramatically over the last several years and new chemistry is needed to manage resistant populations of TPB in cotton.
Technical Abstract: Research addressing insecticide control of the tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), began during the 1930's. During this time calcium arsenate, paris green, and sulphur, which were used to control other cotton pests provided control of the TPB. During the 1940's, mixtures such as chlorinated camphene + sulphur, DDT + sulphur, and benzene ehexachloride + sulphur suppressed the TPB. During the 1960's, other organochlorine insecticides such as dieldrin, endrin, strobane, and toxaphene were new cotton insecticides that provided control of the TPB. Malathion was one of the first organophosphate insecticides used for cotton insect management. The carbamates, aldicarb and carbaryl, and the organophosphates, monocrotophos, and acephate, were registered for use in cotton during the 1970's and provided effective TPB suppression. The pyrethroid insecticides were first registered for use in cotton in 1978, and while not specifically recommended for TPB control, they were very effective against them. Other organophosphate insecticides, such as azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, dicrotophos, dimethoate, and trichlorfon were used for TPB control during this time. Some of the organophsophate, pyrethroid, and carbamate insecticides were used for TPB control for many years without documented instances of insecticide resistance. However, pyrethroid resistance was first detected in 1993 in a field population of TPB in the Mississippi Delta. Resistant insects were also found to have multiple resistance to some organophosphate, carbamate, and cyclodiene insecticides. The level of control with organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides has decreased drastically over the past several years. New chemistry is needed to manage resistant populations in cotton.