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ARS Home » Midwest Area » East Lansing, Michigan » Sugarbeet and Bean Research » Research » Research Project #445193

Research Project: Genetic Improvement and Nutritional Qualities of Pulse Crops

Location: Sugarbeet and Bean Research

Project Number: 5050-21430-012-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: May 9, 2023
End Date: May 8, 2028

Objective 1: Conduct research to develop novel high-throughput methods for pulse flour quality characterization. Goal 1.A: Develop high-throughput methods to evaluate the milling qualities of pulses. Goal 1.B: Develop high-throughput methods to evaluate the nutritional composition of pulses. Goal 1.C: Develop high-throughput methods to evaluate flavor in pulses. Objective 2: Conduct research to identify pulse germplasm with superior end use and nutritional quality and use them in breeding to develop improved common bean germplasm suitable for creating novel products such as alternative protein sources and pasta products. Goal 2.A: Evaluate diverse pulse germplasm for convenience, nutrition, and flavor attributes. Goal 2.B: Breed dry beans with superior convenience, nutrition, and flavor attributes. Goal 2.C: Develop pulse products with superior convenience, nutrition, and flavor attributes.

Dehulling efficiency and milling efficiency are two established benchmarks of pulse milling quality to generate flour. Each will be evaluated and assessed for their relationship to physical properties of pulse seeds of various species, market classes, and varieties. Dehulling efficiency of 24 to 48 genotypes of dry beans, chickpeas, and cowpeas will be evaluated using two methods: 1) dry cracking and seed coat aspiration and 2) high moisture tempered bean seed coat removal. Milling efficiency will be evaluated by milling whole seed and dehulled seed samples via a benchtop hammer mill and flour particle size distribution will be determined by laser diffraction. Total protein, protein quality, protease inhibitors, lectins and oligosaccharides will be the major nutritional and antinutritional traits of focus in the development of non-destructive high throughput phenotyping methods. Dry bean will be the pulse crop of focus for nutritional method development. Non-destructive NIR models will be developed to predict total seed protein on dry beans with the purpose of breeding high protein beans for use as an ingredient. Whole seeds will be scanned via NIR (near-infrared reflectance) analyses to predict bean protein and oligosaccharides content. Chemical methods of total nitrogen via the Dumas combustion for protein and high-performance liquid chromatography for oligosaccharides will be used to develop NIR models. Off-flavors as detected via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human sensory as well as fatty acid and lipid oxidation profile will be conducted for flavor related characteristics and used to develop a high throughput electronic nose screening method for pulse flours. Evaluation of pulse germplasm and breeding for milling quality and flavor related traits will be conducted using the methods describes above. Genetic mapping of off flavor and evaluation of dry bean germplasm for nutritional and antinutritional quality related traits will be conducted. The superior pulse germplasm identified will be evaluated for functionality in pasta and baked good products.