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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Mississippi State, Mississippi » Crop Science Research Laboratory » Genetics and Sustainable Agriculture Research » Research » Research Project #444591

Research Project: Enhancing Agronomic Traits, Fiber Quality, and Resistance to Environmental Stress, Nematodes, and Fungal Diseases in Cotton

Location: Genetics and Sustainable Agriculture Research

Project Number: 6064-21000-017-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Mar 26, 2023
End Date: Mar 25, 2028

1. Conduct research to improve the nematode resistance, disease resistance, seed oil quality and genetic base of cotton and develop and release superior germplasm with high levels of those traits, in addition to improved agronomic traits. 2. Conduct research to discover genes for improving fiber quality, flame retardance and other nonwoven fiber characteristics, and work with cotton fiber bio-scientists, chemists, and ginners to develop superior cotton germplasm with those traits that enhance the economic value of cotton in the marketplace. 3. Conduct innovative research to identify and release climate resilient cotton germplasm with improved fiber yield and stability, water use efficiency, and tolerance or resistance to abiotic stresses.

The overarching goal of this project is to develop and use novel approaches to develop and utilize non-traditional germplasm resources to broaden the genetic base for cultivar development. We will do this through the use of specific random mated populations we have previously developed, followed by development of recombinant lines comprising specific MAGIC populations of Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL) and working with collaborators to evaluate these MAGIC populations for specific traits that are needed to improve cotton fiber production, for new traits that open opportunities for new types of cotton products or cotton derived products, for resistance to three species of nematodes, and for climate resilient traits that can be bred into cultivars. As genes for useful traits are discovered we will determine inheritance and discover markers useful in selection for the trait in breeding populations. We will utilize two types of novel approaches: 1) The use of 62 chromosome substitution lines (CSL) developed by Collaborator at Texas A & M University. These CSL lines are from the tetraploid species, Gossypium barbadense, G. mustelinum, and G. tomentosum. Select individual chromosomes from these three related tetraploid species are substituted individually into a common G. hirsutum inbred line TM-1. Thus, each CSL has 25 chromosome pairs in common and one pair from another tetraploid species. Some CSL involve whole chromosome substitutions, and some involve either the long or short arm of a specific chromosome. A few involve parts of two chromosomes in a translocation arrangement. These CSL have been provided to us in a previous collaborative project. We now have developed homozygous euploid fully fertile lines from each of these CSL. 2) The use of 4 previously developed random mated populations. a) RMUP a random mated population of 11 diverse cultivars or breeding lines; b) RMBUP a random mated population of 18 CSL from G. barbadense crossed with 3 Upland cultivars; c) RMPAP a random mated population from 30 exotic G. hirsutum day neutral derived primitive accessions from Mexico and the islands in the Caribbean, and d) RMBHMTUP a random mated population of 32 non-G. hirsutum CSL involving 12 from G. barbadense, 8 from G. mustelinum, and 12 from G. tomentosum.